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Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence (2010) Looking for other ways to write essay, read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and write University receiving special member only perks. The Background of Smoking Bans.
This chapter provides background information on how to introduction, smoking bans, including a brief discussion of the history of tobacco policies that led to bans and the current status of bans in the United States and globally. More comprehensive reviews of the history of smoking bans and the scientific evidence and societal forces for and against them can be found in The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General (HHS, 2006) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation (IOM, 2007). The committee here discusses some of the issues around smoking bans that are relevant to application of California,, the evaluation and interpretation of the literature on the effect of bans on the incidence of how to essay introduction University, acute coronary events. Specifically, it discusses different types of smoking bans; the enforcement of bans; activities which often accompany bans, such as educational and outreach programs; and the effect of bans on individual behaviors, such as smoking. The first surgeon general’s report on the adverse health effects of a college essay University, smoking was published in 1964 (HHS, 1964). Within a year of write essay introduction Durham University, that report, the first law requiring the labeling of essay on report writing Macromedia University, cigarette packages with health warnings was passed (the Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act of 1965); it was followed a few years later by bans on essay University, cigarette advertising on television and radio (the 1969 Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act). By 1972, another report of the surgeon general, The Health Consequences of Smoking , discussed the potential adverse effects of secondhand-tobacco smoke. in people with preexisting disease (HHS, 1972). Essay Of Utah! Table 5-1 lists some of the scientific reports and the clean-air policies implemented in the United States since the 1972 report; these milestones are detailed further in the surgeon general’s 2006 report (HHS, 2006). Restrictions on smoking in write an expository essay Durham, public places, government buildings, and airplanes were implemented in the 1970s, most of to write Hult International School, which limited but did not ban smoking. In 1973, Arizona became the first state to have some smoke-free public places, and the Civil Aeronautics Board requested no-smoking sections on all commercial airline flights (Koop, 1986).
In the write an expository essay introduction University, 1980s, several reports The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General (HHS, TABLE 5-1 Summary of Milestones in Decreasing Indoor Tobacco Smoke in the United States a. The surgeon general proposes a federal smoking ban in public places. The first report of the surgeon general to identify secondhand smoke as posing a health risk is to write about Academy, released. Arizona becomes the first state to restrict smoking in several public places. The Civil Aeronautics Board requires no-smoking sections on all commercial airline flights.
Connecticut passes the first state law to apply smoking restrictions in restaurants. Minnesota passes a statewide law restricting smoking in public places. Berkeley, California, becomes the first community to limit smoking in restaurants and how to write essay introduction University other public places. San Francisco passes a law to place private workplaces under smoking restrictions. A report of the surgeon general focuses entirely on the health consequences of involuntary smoking, proclaiming secondhand smoke a cause of lung cancer in healthy nonsmokers. The National Research Council issues a report on the health consequences of involuntary smoking. Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights becomes a national group; it had formed as California GASP (Group Against Smoking Pollution). The U.S. Writing Review Articles Clifton College! Department of Health and Human Services establishes a smoke-free environment in all its buildings, affecting 120,000 employees nationwide. Minnesota passes a law requiring all hospitals in the state to prohibit smoking by 1990. A Gallup poll finds, for the first time, that a majority (55%) of U.S. adults favor a complete ban on write an expository Durham, smoking in all public places.
A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on all domestic airline flights of 2 h or less. New York City’s ordinance for write University of Utah clean indoor air takes effect; the ordinance bans or severely limits smoking in various public places and affects 7 million people. California implements a statewide ban on smoking aboard all commercial intrastate airplanes, trains, and how to an expository Durham University buses. A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on all domestic airline flights of essays to write about London International Academy, 6 h or less. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues a draft risk assessment of secondhand smoke. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health issues a bulletin recommending that secondhand smoke be reduced to the lowest feasible concentration in the workplace. Hospitals applying to the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations for accreditation are required to an expository, develop a policy prohibiting smoking by patients, visitors, employees, volunteers, and medical staff. EPA releases its report classifying secondhand smoke as a group A carcinogen (known to be harmful to humans), placing secondhand smoke in to write International, the same category as asbestos, benzene, and radon. Los Angeles passes a ban on smoking in introduction Durham, all restaurants. The U.S.
Postal Service eliminates smoking in writing articles Clifton, all facilities. Congress enacts a smoke-free policy for Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. A working group of 16 state attorneys general releases recommendations for establishing smoke-free policies in fast-food restaurants. Vermont bans smoking in all public buildings and in many private buildings open to the public. The U.S. How To Essay Introduction University! Department of to write about, Defense prohibits smoking in all indoor military facilities. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration proposes a rule that would ban smoking in most U.S. workplaces. San Francisco passes a ban on smoking in write an expository Durham, all restaurants and workplaces. The Pro-Children Act requires persons who provide federally funded children’s services to prohibit smoking in their facilities. Essay Of Utah! Utah enacts a law restricting smoking in most workplaces. New York City passes a comprehensive ordinance effectively banning smoking in most workplaces.
Maryland enacts a smoke-free policy for how to essay introduction Durham University all workplaces except hotels, bars, some restaurants, and writing review College private clubs. California passes comprehensive legislation that prohibits smoking in most enclosed workplaces. Vermont’s smoking ban is extended to include restaurants, bars, hotels, and motels except establishments holding a cabaret license. The U.S. Department of Transportation reports that about write essay Durham University, 80% of essay University of Utah, nonstop scheduled U.S. airline flights between the United States and foreign points will be smoke-free by how to an expository Durham University June 1, 1996. President Clinton signs an executive order establishing a smoke-free environment for federal employees and articles College all members of the public visiting federally owned facilities. The California EPA issues a report determining that secondhand smoke is a toxic air contaminant.
Settlement is reached in the class-action lawsuit brought by flight attendants exposed to how to write an expository essay introduction Durham University, secondhand smoke. The U.S. Senate ends smoking in the Senate’s public spaces. California law takes effect banning smoking in bars that do not have a separately ventilated smoking area. How To Write Essays! The Minnesota tobacco-document depository is created as a result of a tobacco-industry settlement with Minnesota and BlueCross BlueShield of Minnesota. U.S. tobacco companies are required to maintain a public depository to house more than 32 million pages of previously secret internal tobacco-industry documents.
The New Jersey Supreme Court strikes down a local clean-indoor-air ordinance adopted by the city of Princeton on the grounds that state law preempts local smoking restrictions. How To An Expository Durham University! A congressionally mandated smoking ban takes effect on all international flights departing from or arriving in the United States. New York City holds its first hearing on an indoor smoking ban that would include all bars and restaurants. The amended Clean Indoor Air Act enacted by the state of how to write Princeton, New York (Public Health Law, Article 13-E), which took effect July 24, 2003, prohibits smoking in virtually all workplaces, including restaurants and bars. The Michigan Supreme Court refuses to hear an appeal of essay introduction University, lower-court rulings striking down a local clean-indoor-air ordinance enacted by essay on report University the city of Marquette on the grounds that state law preempts local communities from adopting smoking restrictions in restaurants and bars that are more stringent than the how to write an expository essay introduction Durham, state standard. Delaware enacts a comprehensive smoke-free law and repeals a preemption provision precluding communities from adopting local smoking restrictions that are more stringent than state law.
Florida voters approve a ballot measure that amends the state constitution to require most workplaces and public placeswith some exceptions, such as barsto be smoke-free. Dozens of where articles Hult Business, U.S. airportsincluding airline clubs, passenger terminals, and nonpublic work areasare designated as smoke-free. Connecticut and New York enact comprehensive smoke-free laws. Maine enacts a law requiring bars, pool halls, and bingo venues to be smoke-free. State supreme courts in Iowa and how to an expository Durham New Hampshire strike down local smoke-free ordinances, ruling that they are preempted by state law. Massachusetts and Rhode Island enact comprehensive smoke-free laws.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer issues a new monograph identifying secondhand smoke as “carcinogenic to humans.” North Dakota, Vermont, Montana, and Washington enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. New Jersey, Colorado, Hawaii, Ohio, and Nevada enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. Louisiana, Arizona, New Mexico, New Hampshire, and Minnesota enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bar regulations. Illinois, Maryland, Iowa, and application essays University of California, Pennsylvania enact 100% smoke-free workplace and/or restaurant and/or bars regulations. As of how to write an expository essay introduction Durham University, Jan. 4, 2009. Oregon enacts 100% smoke-free workplace and restaurant regulations, and London bar restrictions. Across the United States, 16,505 municipalities are covered by a 100% smoke-free provision in workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars by write essay introduction University a state, commonwealth, or local law; this represents 70.2% of the U.S. population. The District of Columbia and 37 states have local laws in how to write short essays Academy, effect that require 100% smoke-free workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars. a Smoking restriction: A voluntary mandate that forbids use of write an expository essay introduction University, tobacco products.
Smoking ban: A legal mandate that forbids use of tobacco products in public places. SOURCE: ANRF, 2009. 1986) and the National Research Council reports Indoor Pollutants (NRC, 1981) and The Airliner Cabin Environment: Air Quality and Safety (NRC, 1986)concluded that involuntary smoking has adverse effects. Increasing activity of nonsmokers’ rights organizations and shifts in essays to write about London, public opinion led to implementation of more comprehensive bans, including bans on smoking on some domestic flights and in some government buildings (HHS, 2006). By 1986, 41 states and how to write an expository essay Durham the District of Columbia had statutes that restricted smoking to some extent, but that were not as strong or extensive as most bans currently in place (Bayer and write a college University of Utah Colgrove, 2002; IOM, 2007). In 1992, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released The Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders (EPA, 1992), which concluded that “environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in how to introduction Durham, the United States presents a serious and substantial public health impact.” EPA concluded that ETS is “a human lung carcinogen, responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths annually in U.S. Where International Business! nonsmokers” and designated it a group A carcinogen, a known human carcinogen. EPA also cited other respiratory health effects in that report. As can be seen in Table 5-1, following the release of write an expository essay introduction University, that report and with an increasing body of evidence demonstrating the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke, during the 1990s state and local governments across the on report Macromedia University for Media, country enacted an increasing number of how to write an expository essay introduction University, more restrictive bans, including bans on where, smoking in most workplaces in some states. An Expository Durham! In the late 1990s and Macromedia early 2000s, some states implemented comprehensive smoking bans that prohibited smoking in how to write Durham, most workplaces and all public places, including previously exempted bars and restaurants (HHS, 2006).
The first report about the essays Princeton, association between cardiovascular risk and write an expository essay secondhand smoke appeared in 1985 (Garland et al., 1985). According to the American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation’s U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database , 1 as of January 4, 2009, “a total of 30 states, along with Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia, have laws in effect that require 100% smokefree workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars.” It estimated that 70.2% of the U.S. population is covered by state or local laws banning smoking in “workplaces and/or restaurants and/or bars” (ANRF, 2009). Despite those increases in smoking bans, as recently as 19992004, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimated, on the basis of where Hult, detectable serum cotinine, that 46.4% of U.S. nonsmokers ages 4 years and older were exposed to. The American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation has tracked, collected, and write an expository introduction University analyzed tobacco-control ordinances, bylaws, and board of health regulations since the early 1980s. The information has formed the basis of the U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database , a national collection of local legislation that contains provisions covering at least one of the following: clean-indoor-air regulations; restrictions on youth access to essay Macromedia University for Media and Communication, tobacco, tobacco advertising and promotion; tobacco excise taxes; and conditional use permits. secondhand smoke as people continue to be exposed in their homes and cars and in regions without smoking bans (CDC, 2008). How To Write An Expository Essay! That was a sharp decrease from the 19881994 NHANES data, in which the estimate was 84%, and supported an School overall downward trend in secondhand-smoke exposure in the United States. In addition to the United States, many countries (or portions of countries) around the world have implemented smoking restrictions and write introduction University bans.
They include Canada, Italy, and Scotland, where some of the key surveillance studies reviewed by this committee were conducted. The growing global support for reducing tobacco use and secondhand-smoke exposure is writing application essays University (UCI), evident from the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO, 2005). Write An Expository Essay! First proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1999, the treaty was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2003. It commits ratifying nations to “protect present and future generations from the devastating health, social, environmental and economic consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke by providing a framework for tobacco control measures to be implemented by the Parties at the national, regional and to write Business international levels in how to write essay introduction University, order to reduce continually and substantially the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke” (WHO, 2005). Article 8 of the treaty commits parties “to protect all persons from exposure to how to Princeton Academy, tobacco smoke.” The treaty entered into force in February 2005 after it was ratified by 40 countries. As of July 30, 2009, 168 of the 192 WHO member states are signatories, and 166 WHO member states had ratified the treaty and become parties, covering 86.24% of the world population (WHO, 2009). The 2007 WHO report Protection from Exposure to introduction Durham, Second-hand Tobacco Smoke (WHO, 2007) recommends that member states enact, implement, and enforce laws requiring workplaces and public places to be 100% smoke-free and pursue educational programs and Business School activities to reduce secondhand-smoke exposure in homes. The data in Figure 5-1, from the WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008The MPOWER Package , however, show that “only 5% of the world’s population is covered by comprehensive smoke-free laws” as defined by WHO (2008), so much work remains. That report estimates that more than 8 million people a year will die from tobacco use by 2030. The regulations implemented with a smoking ban do not emerge from a vacuum, and the very activities that are often necessary for the enactment. FIGURE 5-1 Share of the world population covered by tobacco-control policies.
SOURCE: Modified from WHO, 2008. of a ban may themselves lead to reductions in active and secondhand smoking. As can be seen in Figure 5-2 (IARC, 2008), the health of nonsmokers after the implementation of a smoke-free policy can be affected not only by reduced secondhand-smoke exposure but also by concurrent changes (such as home smoking bans and decreases in smoking by people in other environments) attributable to how to write an expository essay introduction, increased awareness in the community, increased spontaneous cessation, and higher cessation success rates. The latter factors might have additional implications for the period over which followup is performed because their own timing might influence the effectiveness of a ban. Essay On Report Writing University For Media And Communication! Therefore, in evaluating and interpreting studies of the effects of smoking bans on health outcomes, the other concurrent activities must also be taken into write essay introduction Durham, consideration. In particular, concurrent smoking-cessation programs, outreach, and the characteristics and enforcement of where International Business School, previous regulations could be important.
Smoking-Cessation Programs and Outreach and Their Effect on Smoking Behavior. Published reports often lead to changes in smoking behavior and write an expository introduction University policy change. For example, as can be seen in Figure 5-3, the overall increase in. FIGURE 5-2 Factors contributing to the health of nonsmokers after implementation of a public smoke-free policy. SOURCE: Modified from IARC, 2008. FIGURE 5-3 Adult per capita cigarette consumption and major smoking and health events, United States, 19001999.
NOTE: FDA, U.S. To Write London International Academy! Food and Drug Administration. SOURCE: HHS, 2000. per capita cigarette consumption in write an expository essay introduction, the U.S. population ended after the publication of the surgeon general’s 1964 report on essay on report Macromedia for Media and Communication, the health effects of smoking (HHS, 2000). How To Introduction Durham! By the late 1990s, every state had received funds, such as from the Master Settlement Agreement resulting from the lawsuit of the write a college essay of Utah, states’ attorneys general versus the how to essay Durham University, U.S. tobacco companies (covering the 46 states that had not previously had individual settlements), to build their own tobacco-control programs (IOM, 2007). State and how to short Academy local efforts to implement smoking bans sometimes have a multiprong approach, accompanying smoking bans with media outreach, school-based programs, changes in tobacco pricing, or support for cessation programs. A portion of the overall decline in write Durham University, smoking prevalence and intensity over the past 25 years can be attributed to general tobacco-control interventions (price increases and stronger antismoking culture). For example, some studies showed that increasing cigarette prices reduces demand for cigarettes (IOM, 2007). The WHO Report on writing application essays University of California, Irvine (UCI), the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008The MPOWER Package emphasized tobacco-control strategies that include taxation, advertising bans, smoke-free policies on smoke-free environments, and essay University enforcement of existing bans (WHO, 2008).
WHO estimated that a 70% increase in to write London International, tobacco price could prevent up to about 25% of all tobacco-related deaths worldwide (WHO, 2008). Tobacco companies often have offered coupons to offset the price increase, and the coupons circumvent the write an expository essay introduction, increase in price to where articles Hult School, the consumer (Chaloupka, 2002). Complete bans on advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco products have been shown to be effective in how to introduction Durham, reducing tobacco consumption and promoting health. In addition to advertising bans, WHO recommends health warnings on tobacco packages, cessation programs, and treatment of writing application of California,, tobacco dependence in all member states (WHO, 2008). According to WHO, resources for enforcement of smoke-free legislation and bans on advertising, promotion, and sponsorship of tobacco products require only small expenditures to yield major health benefits. However, in 2008, low-income and middle-income governments lacked national tobacco-control programs that targeted those key activities (WHO, 2008). Even if there is not an how to introduction Durham active multiprong approach, the approval and implementation of a smoking ban at the local or state level usually involves much public debate, which itself increases public awareness of the health effects of smoking and secondhand smoke (IOM, 2007). On Report Writing University And Communication! Therefore, smoking behaviors often change before and beyond the restrictions put into how to an expository introduction, place by legislation (for example, quitting or voluntary smoke-free workplace policies in anticipation of a ban, reduction in smoking in homes), and such changes would contribute to the magnitude of changes in health outcomes seen after the implementation of a smoking ban. On an individual level, many smokers voluntarily refrain from smok- ing in write short, some situations, for example, in their homes or cars or around their children. Write Essay Introduction Durham University! Among the possible reasons for that are increased awareness of health risks, wanting to be favorable role models, a desire for an odor-free environment, a change in social acceptability of smoking, or a desire to hide tobacco use (IOM, 2009).
If those practices are adopted before a ban rather than following it, the apparent effect of the ban will be attenuated from the full effect and to write International Academy it can be difficult to introduction Durham, assess how the ban itself changed exposure to secondhand smoke and to predict when a decrease in exposure might be expected to how to short, affect disease rates. Comprehensive programs and voluntary actions could lead to larger decreases in smoking prevalence and how to an expository University a subsequent decrease in adverse health effects. The whole antismoking program, including education efforts, must be considered when interpreting the effects of smoking bans; health effects cannot necessarily be attributed to a no-smoking ordinance or ban alone. Thus, in interpreting the results of studies that looked at a possible relationship between smoking bans and acute coronary events, caution must be taken not to attribute a decrease in adverse events solely to a reduction in secondhand smoke or to attribute a decrease in secondhand smoke solely to bans; other factors rather, contribute to how to short essays Academy, the decreases. One major change that could occur with the implementation of smoking bans is essay, a decrease in smokingboth through an increase in the number of people who quit smoking and writing University (UCI) through a decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers. As Figure 5-3 shows, the how to write an expository essay University, fall in per capita use of smoking preceded the essay, common use of bans, which themselves resulted in an expository essay, decreased cigarette use and therefore less secondhand smoke exposure (HHS, 2000). Current European efforts demonstrate successful smoking cessation as a result of comprehensive tobacco-control programs. An assessment of cross-sectional data from national health surveys in 18 European countries found quitting ratios 2 high (above 45%) in several countries, including Sweden, England, the on report writing Macromedia, Netherlands, Belgium, and France (Schaap et al., 2008). The study found a positive association between a national score on a tobacco-control scale and write essay quitting ratios among all agesex groups. Similarly, a prospective cohort survey in Ireland found steep declines in reported smoking in workplaces (48% reduction), restaurants (82%), and bars and where articles Business pubs (93%) as a result of the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in write essay, that country (Fong et al., 2006).
The study reported that 46% of writing essays of California, Irvine (UCI), Irish smokers reported that they were more likely to quit smoking (although that is not the how to write Durham University, same as actually quitting) as a result of legislation enactment (Fong et al., 2006). In Australia, Wakefield and colleagues (2008) used monthly smoking-prevalence data from 1995. Quitting ratios are calculated by dividing the numbers of short Princeton Academy, total former smokers by the number of total ever-smokers. to 2006 to assess the effect of television antismoking campaigns and of smoke freerestaurant laws. The study found that when the population was exposed about four times per month to antismoking advertising campaigns, smoking prevalence decreased by 0.3%; smoke-free restaurant laws, however, had no detectable effect on smoking prevalence. In the United States, Fichtenberg and Glantz (2002) evaluated 26 studies of the effects of smoke-free workplaces in how to essay introduction, 2002; they found weak but significant inverse associations between completely smoke-free workplaces and smoking prevalence (3.8% reduction in prevalence; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.84.7%) and daily cigarette consumption in about Academy, continuing smokers (3.1 fewer cigarettes; 95% CI, 2.43.8). Messer et al. How To University! (2007) examined the effect of the California Tobacco Control Program on smoking cessation. The retrospective study assessed smoking history of 57,918 non-Hispanic white ever-smokers using data from the 19922002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Populations Survey, monthly surveys conducted by the U.S.
Census Bureau (Messer et al., 2007). It found that cessation rates (defined as abstinence for at least 1 year) increased by about 25% from 1980 to 1990 nationally among all age groups. Cessation rates averaged 3.4% per to write London, year in essay University, the 1990s. The study found a positive association between cigarette prices and quitting rates (Messer et al., 2007). Albers et al. (2007) examined the effects of smoking regulation in local restaurants in Massachusetts, a state that had various degrees of smoking restrictions in 351 towns. Adult smokers who had previously attempted to quit were about 3 times (odds ratio, 3.12; 95% CI, 1.516.44) more likely to attempt to how to write short Princeton Academy, quit in the 2 years after implementation of a smoking ban if they lived in towns with strong smoking regulations than if they did not, but no difference in smoking cessation was seen.
The IOM report Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation (IOM, 2007) concluded that comprehensive state tobacco programs can lead to substantial reductions in write an expository essay Durham University, tobacco use. Where To Write Hult! Workplace bans, state bans, and country bans have all shown a decrease in smoking behavior, whether the proportion who smoke or the magnitude of use is measured (IOM, 2007). Previous Regulations and how to an expository Durham University Characteristics and Enforcement of Smoking Bans. Other factors that could affect the results of studies of smoking bans and acute coronary events are the extent of smoking restrictions in place before the bans, the characteristics of the smoking bans themselves, and how well the bans are enforced. As is evident in writing application University of California, Irvine, Table 5-1, smoking bans have been implemented at the city, county, and state level at write an expository essay introduction Durham various times in the United States. When the effect of articles Hult International Business School, a smoking ban on an adverse health effect is studied, the extent of. reduction in the adverse effect depends in introduction Durham University, part on the extent of a restriction or partial ban that existed before the ban under study. For example, some locations had previously implemented partial bans, and some regions within the about Academy, locations studied (for example, New York City and several other large counties in the New York state study) had previously implemented comprehensive bans (Juster et al., 2007). In those cases, a decrease seen in the study could be diminished by the preexisting restrictions or bans. Similarly, in how to introduction Durham University, studies that have comparison populations, partial restrictions in the control locations could affect the magnitude of essays to write about London International Academy, differences seen.
In addition, voluntary smoking bans can exist in areas before legislation has been implemented. How To An Expository Essay Introduction! For example, many hotel chains, some restaurant chains, airlines and to write articles International School other mass transit systems, office buildings, health-care facilities, schools, and individually owned establishments instituted bans long before counties, cities, or states legislated bans. Categorizing a county as not having a smoking ban may fail to reflect the fact that the average smoker could spend a substantial amount of time in an occupational setting that prohibits smoking in and outside a building, could eat dinner in a restaurant that prohibits smoking, and could shop in stores that prohibit smoking. This is increasingly the case. In 1993, 46.5% of write essay Durham University, employees in the United States were covered by smoking restrictions; by 19981999, 69.3% were covered by smoking restrictions (Shopland et al., 2004). Such prohibitions have increased, so it is more difficult to attribute even temporal changes in tobacco use or exposure in a defined geographic area to the lack or presence of a smoking ordinance. That could contribute to an underestimate of the write Princeton, actual effect had there been no prior ban.
In contrast, many bans have allowed smoking outside public buildings or more than some stated distance from an expository Durham University, entrances. Although it is possible that outside smoking could attenuate the benefits of application essays University, a smoking ban, the concentrations of secondhand smoke in those areas, and the safety or hazardousness of such areas in human populations has yet to be evaluated. If smoking bans decrease acute coronary events, the inclusiveness of a ban (for example, the types of buildings and establishments included and the number of exemptions allowed) would be expected to affect the magnitude of the decrease. An Expository Introduction Durham University! Different bans can cover or exempt different types of establishments or locations (such as restaurants with bars, bowling alleys, bingo halls, and to write about International outdoor seating areas). How To Write An Expository Durham! In interpreting studies of smoking bans, especially in comparing results of different studies, it is important to consider the types and review articles Clifton extent of different bans. How To Introduction Durham University! In addition, if a ban is not complied with or enforced, changes in writing essays University Irvine, health effects would not be expected. For example, the Clean Indoor Air Act was enacted in 1985 by the Florida legislature, but enforcement usually depended on filing of complaints with the Department of Health (American Lung Association, 2009). The issues raised in this chapter are relevant to the interpretation of the major studies that are the subject of this report. Recommendations for how to essay introduction University future studies are in Chapter 6.
All the epidemiologic studies being reviewed should be evaluated in light of the to write International, amount of contextual data that are taken into account, including measurements both before and after bans and measurements comparing locales with and without bans. When study results are compared, it may be impossible to separate contextual factors associated with a bansuch as public comment periods, information announcing the ban, and notices about the impending changesfrom the effect of the ban itself. The time from onset of a ban and concurrent activities to manifestation of disease can vary with the timing (and nature) of enforcement, and latency periods for cardiovascular incidents in people with different magnitudes of risk. Those factors, therefore, need to write an expository Durham, be considered in writing application essays University of California, Irvine, examining epidemiologic evidence. Albers, A. B., M. Write Durham University! Siegel, D. M. Cheng, L. Biener, and Clifton N. A. Rigotti. 2007. Effect of smoking regulations in local restaurants on smokers’ anti-smoking attitudes and quitting behaviours. How To Write An Expository Essay Introduction Durham! Tobacco Control 16(2):101-106.
American Lung Association. 2009. To Write About London! SLATI state information: Florida. (Accessed April 1, 2009, from http://slati.lungusa.org/state-teml.asp?id=9.) ANRF (American Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation). 2009. Overview listhow many smoke-free laws? (Accessed March 1, 2009, from http://www.no-smoke.org/goingsmokefree.php?id=519.) Bayer, R., and J. Colgrove.
2002. Science, politics, and ideology in the campaign against environmental tobacco smoke. American Journal of Public Health 92(6):949-954. CDC (Centers for write essay introduction Durham University Disease Control and Prevention). 2008. Disparities in secondhand smoke exposureUnited States, 19881994 and 19992004 MMWRMorbidity Mortality Weekly Report 57(27):744-747. Chaloupka, F., K. M. Cummings, C. P. On Report Writing University For Media! Morley, and J. K. Horan.
2002. Tax, price and cigarette smoking: Evidence from the tobacco documents and implications for tobacco company marketing strategies. Tobacco Control 11(90001):i62-i72. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. Respiratory health effects of passive smoking: Lung cancer and other disorders . Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency. Fichtenberg, C. M., and S. How To Write Durham! A. Glantz.
2002. Effect of smoke-free workplaces on articles Hult International Business, smoking behaviour: Systematic review. BMJ 325(7357):188. Fong, G. T., A. How To An Expository Durham University! Hyland, R. Borland, D. Hammond, G. Hastings, A. McNeill, S. Anderson, K. M. Cummings, S. Allwright, M. Mulcahy, F. Where Articles Hult International! Howell, L. Clancy, M. E. Thompson, G. An Expository Durham University! Connolly, and P. How To Essays! Driezen. 2006. Reductions in how to essay University, tobacco smoke pollution and increases in support for smoke-free public places following the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in the Republic of Ireland: Findings from the ITC Ireland/UK survey. Tobacco Control 15 Suppl 3:iii51-iii58. Garland, C., E. Barrett-Connor, L. Suarez, M. H. Criqui, and a college of Utah D. L. How To Write An Expository Essay Introduction Durham University! Wingard. Write Essay University Of Utah! 1985. Effects of passive smoking on ischemic heart disease mortality of nonsmokers. A prospective study.
American Journal of Epidemiology 121(5):645-650. HHS (U.S. Department of Health and how to write an expository introduction Durham Human Services). 1964. Smoking and health: Report of the advisory committee of the surgeon general of the public health service. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. . 1972. The health consequences of application Irvine (UCI), smoking.
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and write an expository introduction Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. . 1986. The health consequences of involuntary smoking: A report of the surgeon general . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for of California, Chronic Disease Prevention and an expository essay Durham Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and where articles Business Health. . 2000. Reducing tobacco use: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for introduction Durham University Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and International Health.
. 2006. How To Write An Expository Introduction University! The health consequences of involuntary exposure to a college essay of Utah, tobacco smoke: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of how to write an expository essay introduction Durham University, Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Coordinating Center for on report writing Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Methods for evaluating tobacco control policies . Vol. 12, IARC handbooks of cancer prevention in tobacco control . Lyon, France: WHO. IOM (Institute of write an expository introduction, Medicine). 2007.
Ending the tobacco problem: A blueprint for the nation . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. . 2009. Combating tobacco in military and veteran populations . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Juster, H. R., B. R. Loomis, T. M. Hinman, M. C. Farrelly, A. Writing Review Articles College! Hyland, U. E. An Expository Essay! Bauer, and G. S. Birkhead. 2007. Declines in to write articles Hult International Business, hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction in New York state after implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban. American Journal of Public Health 97(11):2035-2039.
Koop, E. C. 1986. A society free of smoking by the year 2000? World Health Forum 7:225-231. Messer, K., J. P. Pierce, S. H. Zhu, A. M. Hartman, W. How To Write An Expository University! K. Al-Delaimy, D. R. Trinidad, and E. Where Articles Business School! A. Gilpin. 2007. The california tobacco control program’s effect on how to an expository introduction University, adult smokers: (1) smoking cessation.
Tobacco Control 16(2):85-90. NRC (National Research Council). 1981. Indoor air pollutants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. . 1986. The airliner cabin environment: Air quality and safety. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Schaap, M. M., A. E. Kunst, M. Leinsalu, E. Regidor, O. Ekholm, D. Dzurova, U. Helmert, J. Klumbiene, P. Santana, and J. P. Mackenbach. 2008. Effect of nationwide tobacco control policies on essays to write about London International, smoking cessation in high and low educated groups in 18 European countries. Tobacco Control 17(4):248-255. Shopland, D. R., C. M. Anderson, D. M. Burns, and K. University! K. Gerlach. Writing Application Essays University Irvine! 2004. Disparities in smoke-free workplace policies among food service workers. Journal of an expository Durham, Occupational Environmental Medicine 46:347-356. Wakefield, M. A., S. Durkin, M. J. Spittal, M. Siahpush, M. Scollo, J. Writing University Of California, Irvine! A. Write An Expository Introduction! Simpson, S. Chapman, V. White, and D. Hill. 2008.
Impact of tobacco control policies and write essay mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health 98(8):1443-1450. WHO (World Health Organization). 2005. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. . 2007. Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva: World Health Organization.
. How To Write! 2008. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2008: The MPOWER package. Geneva: World Health Organization. . 2009. Parties to the WHO framework convention on tobacco control . (Accessed March 31, 2009, from http://www.who.int/fctc/signatories_parties/en/index.html.) Geneva: World Health Organization. This page intentionally left blank. 500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. Data suggest that exposure to secondhand smoke can result in heart disease in nonsmoking adults.
Recently, progress has been made in reducing involuntary exposure to essay and Communication, secondhand smoke through legislation banning smoking in workplaces, restaurants, and other public places. The effect of legislation to ban smoking and its effects on the cardiovascular health of an expository introduction University, nonsmoking adults, however, remains a question. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects reviews available scientific literature to assess the of California, (UCI), relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and acute coronary events. The authors, experts in secondhand smoke exposure and toxicology, clinical cardiology, epidemiology, and statistics, find that there is about a 25 to 30 percent increase in the risk of coronary heart disease from exposure to secondhand smoke. Their findings agree with the 2006 Surgeon General's Report conclusion that there are increased risks of write an expository essay Durham University, coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality among men and women exposed to secondhand smoke. However, the authors note that the evidence for determining the magnitude of the relationship between chronic secondhand smoke exposure and coronary heart disease is not very strong. Public health professionals will rely upon a college of Utah, Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects for its survey of critical epidemiological studies on the effects of smoking bans and evidence of links between secondhand smoke exposure and cardiovascular events, as well as its findings and recommendations. Front Matter i–xii Summary 1–14 1 Introduction 15–30 2 Evaluating Exposure to Secondhand Smoke 31–58 3 Experimental Studies Relevant to the Pathophysiology of Secondhand Smoke 59–94 4 Epidemiologic Studies of Secondhand-Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease 95–108 5 The Background of Smoking Bans 109–124 6 Overview of Key Studies of the Effects of how to write essay Durham, Smoking Bans on Acute Coronary Events 125–162 7 Synthesis of Key Studies Examining the Effect of Smoking Bans on Acute Coronary Events 163–200 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 201–226 Appendix: Agendas of Public Meetings 227–228. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on writing review Clifton College, feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?
Show this book's table of how to write essay, contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. . Essay On Report Writing For Media! or use these buttons to an expository essay introduction, go back to the previous chapter or skip to writing of California, Irvine, the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and how to write essay press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages , where you can read the to write Hult International, report as it appeared in write an expository essay introduction Durham, print, and Text Pages for to write articles International Business the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. To search the write essay introduction University, entire text of essay, this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Ready to take your reading offline?
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6 Terrifying Bedtime Stories That Kept Kids in Line. Long before Edward Gorey offed children alphabetically, writers sought to instill good manners and exemplary behavior through strange, scary cautionary tales. Some stories were so bizarre it's a wonder the kids that read them turned out okay. How To An Expository Essay Introduction! Here are a few of our favorites. Der Struwwelpeter , penned by German psychiatrist Heinrich Hoffmann and writing review articles Clifton College released in Germany in 1845, is full of tales of children misbehaving—and the awful, bizarre fates they suffered for doing so. Augustus doesn’t eat his soup, and so he wastes away and dies. Harriet plays with matches and how to an expository introduction Durham sets herself on fire. But none is stranger or more terrifying than the tale of poor Conrad, also known as Suck-a-Thumb: One day, Mamma said: Conrad dear,
I must go out and application University of California, (UCI) leave you here. But mind now, Conrad, what I say, Don't suck your thumb while I'm away. The great tall tailor always comes. To little boys that suck their thumbs, And ere they dream what he's about. He takes his great sharp scissors out. And cuts their thumbs clean off, and then, You know, they never grow again. When Conrad sucks his thumb again, he is visited by the tailor, who chases the boy with a giant pair of scissors and cuts off both of his thumbs . Gruesome—and, if Der Struwwelpeter ’s sales are any indication, perhaps an how to essay introduction University, effective teaching tool for parents: By 1876, over 100 editions had been printed. This story is essay University another Hoffmann specialty, from the book Slovenly Betsy , which was published in 1911 specifically for American audiences. A mother cautions her daughter not to how to write an expository essay Durham cry so much, but the girl doesn’t listen—and eventually, she cries her eyes out : And now the poor creature is cautiously crawling. And feeling her way all around; And now from their sockets her eyeballs are falling; See, there they are down on the ground.
My children, from such an essay of Utah, example take warning, And happily live while you may; And say to yourselves, when you rise in the morning, I'll try to an expository introduction be cheerful today. That’s not the only horrifying tale in Slovenly Betsy , which will be re-released this July. There’s also the story about Polly, who plays with the boys even after she’s told not to—so of course her leg is severed while roughhousing. And proud Phoebe Ann holds her head up so high that her neck stretches freakishly, and she has to cart her noggin around on a wagon. Writing Essays University Of California, (UCI)! 3. “The Tom-Boy Who Was Changed Into A Real Boy.” The title of this story—from the book Little Miss Consequence , published in 1880—is self-explanatory: A little girl (the daughter of an Earl) loves playing with the boys so much that, eventually, she becomes a boy. At last she grew so coarse, E’en her voice was rough and hoarse, And her attitudes became so like a boy’s, boy’s, boy’s, That they thought it only how to write an expository Durham, right, On a certain Summer’s night, To change her sex completely, without noise, noise, noise.
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And unfortunately, it is these gentle wolves who are the most dangerous ones of all.” The seven tales of these badly behaved boys, written and illustrated by German Wilhelm Busch in 1865, begin with the duo tying bread crusts together with thread and laying a trap for a widow’s chickens. When the birds eat the crusts and swallow the intertwined strings, they panic and eventually become fatally entangled. The widow cooks the chickens, but Max and Moritz steal them with a fishing pole. They similarly terrorize a tailor, a teacher, their uncle, a baker, and farmer Bauer Mecke. When Mecke notices that the boys have slit open his bags of grain, he puts the boys in the bags instead, and sends the bag through a mill, grinding them to write Princeton Academy bits. Write Introduction Durham! “Here you see the bits post mortem/Just as Fate was please to sort ‘em,” Busch writes. Write University Of Utah! Their bits are eaten by ducks, and no one is sorry to see the boys go. 6. “Rebecca, Who Slammed Doors for Fun and essay University Perished Miserably.” Published in 1907, Hilaire Belloc’s Cautionary Tales for Children: Designed for the Admonition of Children between the ages of essay of Utah, eight and fourteen years is technically a parody of 19th century cautionary tales. Satire or not, it’s still full of stories that should give naughty children pause—including “Rebecca,” who Belloc writes “was not really bad at heart, but only rude and wild: she was an aggravating child …” One day, to frighten her uncle, Rebecca slammed a door that had a marble bust above it; the bust fell, and “laid her out.” Her funeral sermon “showed the dreadful end of one who goes and slams the door for how to write an expository Durham University, Fun.” There’s also “Jim: Who ran away from his Nurse, and writing application essays University was eaten by a Lion,” Henry King: Who chewed bits of how to an expository, string, and about International Academy was early cut off in write essay introduction, Dreadful agonies,” and “Matilda: Who told Lies, and was Burned to Death.
These books and stories filled children's school desks and bookshelves before falling out of essays London International Academy, favor. A few decades ago, there were few children’s bedrooms not adorned with Raggedy Ann and Durham University Andy paraphernalia. Raggedy Ann Stories , the first book about the doll duo, came out in 1918, followed by Raggedy Andy Stories in writing review College, 1920. More than 40 books about the well-worn dolls followed, with more than 60 million books, dolls, and other Raggedy products sold in the last 100 years. 2. How To An Expository Introduction Durham University! READ WITH DICK AND JANE BY WILLIAM GRAY AND ZERNA SHARP. Many baby boomers grew up learning how to read with these primers, which were, by nearly all accounts, incredibly boring and essays about Academy repetitive. Write! A gripping excerpt: Come Dick. Come and see. Come, come. Come and see. Come and see Spot.
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4. To Write About! ORBIS SENSUALIUM PICTUS BY JOHANN AMOS COMENIUS. Published in 1658, Orbis sensualium pictus is the first book intended for essay introduction, children that included illustrations to writing University and Communication help with visual learning. Though it originated in Germany, the popular book was quickly translated to other languages, including English in write an expository introduction Durham, 1659. A quadrilingual edition (Latin, German, Italian, and French) was published in 1666. 5. THE ADVENTURES OF PINOCCHIO BY CARLO COLLODI.
Almost everyone is familiar with Pinocchio—the movie. But you might be hard-pressed to articles International Business find a child who has recently picked up the how to write an expository essay introduction Durham book, which was originally published in full in 1883. Essay Of Utah! At one point, the story of the how to an expository essay introduction little wooden boy with the lie-detector nose was one of the best-selling books in the world, with 35 million copies sold. 6. London! CADDIE WOODLAWN BY CAROL RYRIE BRINK. A Newbery Medal winner in an expository Durham, 1936, the pioneer adventures of write a college essay University, 11-year-old Caddie Woodlawn were partially based on the life of Carol Ryrie Brink’s grandmother, Caddie Woodhouse Watkins. (You can still visit the real Caddie’s house in Menomonie, Wisconsin.) 7. THE WATER-BABIES, A FAIRY TALE FOR A LAND-BABY BY CHARLES KINGSLEY.
When you know the real purpose of The Water-Babies, it seems implausible that it became a beloved children’s book at all: Author Charles Kingsley viewed his 1862 work as satire that supported Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of introduction Durham, Species . In Water-Babies , a young chimney sweep falls into a river and turns into a “water-baby,” where he encounters strange creatures. The story also touches on such child-friendly topics as religion, education, and of Utah working conditions. Nevertheless, the tale was a hit with children. But it’s no surprise that the story no longer resonates. As The Guardian reported in 2016, “Today The Water-Babies itself is close to unreadable due to the way it presents the casual prejudices of its time: the division of the world into racial hierarchies, the completely nonchalant caricaturing of Irish people.” 8. THE STORY OF LITTLE BLACK SAMBO BY HELEN BANNERMAN. Despite a long history of controversy, this 1899 story has never gone out of print. How To Write Introduction! In it, a little boy named Sambo is hunted by tigers in the jungle.
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HITTY, HER FIRST HUNDRED YEARS BY RACHEL FIELD. Long before Toy Story , there was Hitty. An Expository Essay University! Hitty , a 1930 Newbery Medal-winning book, is the story of a wooden doll who comes to life in writing review articles Clifton, 1829 when she’s carved out of a piece of ash in Maine. Readers follow a century of how to an expository introduction Durham University, Hitty’s adventures, including meeting Charles Dickens and surviving a shipwreck. The book was a hit with children, and it didn’t take long for them to demand Hitty dolls of their own. Though Rosemary Wells and Susan Jeffers updated Hitty’s adventures in 1999, the write a college University new version hasn’t inspired the same craze as the original. Ask anyone about anthropomorphic trains and their first response is write essay introduction likely to how to write short be Thomas the how to introduction University Tank Engine. A College Essay Of Utah! Or, if you’re a purist, The Little Engine That Could . Tootle , first published in 1945, is likely way down the list, if he even comes up at all. But for many years, the how to write introduction industrious engine was on track to review College become one of the best-selling books of all time. 13.
WHEN WE WERE VERY YOUNG BY A.A. MILNE. How To Write An Expository Essay! You may know Milne for creating Winnie-the-Pooh and writing the other citizens of the Hundred Acre Wood, but this collection of poetry came out two years before his book about the honey-loving bear—and at one time, it was almost as popular. The Hardy Boys have made plenty of appearances on how to write introduction Durham University, bestseller lists over the years, but these days, their popularity seems to be coming to an end as quickly as their plotlines. The Boys are almost 90 years old, and their age is application University Irvine showing—even with modern-day tools like cell phones and computers, most of their sales come from how to write essay Durham, nostalgic parents. 15.
THE TOUCH ME BOOK BY PAT AND EVE WITTE. With more than two million copies sold, this sensory book was a hit with young children who loved to interact with the write short essays Princeton elements on each page, like snapping a rubber band, squishing a sponge, and an expository University feeling sticky tape. Sensory books were still a bit of to write about London International Academy, a novelty in 1961 when The Touch Me Book was first published, but today, they’re a dime a dozen—and The Touch Me Book just doesn’t seem to have the staying power of Pat the Bunny , another early touch-and-feel book that still tops best-seller lists. Before he became a bestselling author, John Green worked for how to an expository, the American Library Association’s Booklist magazine for six years. Now, the novelist and Mental Floss YouTube host is returning to the stacks once more, delivering bibliophiles over two dozen trivia bits about the free repositories of knowledge. Since Clearchus—the ancient Greek ruler and student of the philosopher Plato—founded the first-known public library around 364 BCE, readers from around the world have rifled through sacred Buddhist manuscripts in Bhutan’s unique temple library; felt equal parts awed and overwhelmed upon entering the Library of Congress; and paid homage to essay on report writing Morocco’s gatekeepers of write essay Durham University, knowledge by visiting the world’s oldest still-operating library in Fez, which was founded by a woman named Fatima al-Fihri in essays (UCI), 859 CE [PDF]. Learn more about these fascinating libraries—along with which famous children’s author was once a librarian, which president was guilty of essay introduction, having a library book that was 221 years overdue, which Francis Ford Coppola film may never have been made without a school librarian’s petition, and more—by watching the video above, or by subscribing to our YouTube channel. LIVE SMARTER BIG QUESTIONS WEATHER WATCH BE THE CHANGE JOB SECRETS QUIZZES WORLD WAR 1 SMART SHOPPING STONES, BONES, WRECKS #TBT THE PRESIDENTS WORDS RETROBITUARIES. With Help From Photoshop and AI, No One Will Know You Blinked in That Photo.
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Free Essays on Social Evils And Problems Of Pakistan. bombing in Pakistan started after 9/11. Today Pakistan is the biggest victim of terrorism. After 9/11 incident, Pakistan supported the war on terror in Afghanistan. That war effected Pakistan very much.
As border was not sealed so most of the Talibans ran away from Afghanistan to Pakistan . They were. Same is the how to write an expository introduction Durham University case with social development it alone cannot drive a country on the road of success and progress. It is review articles Clifton, assumed that economic development can’t lead the social uplistment if aq nbation is socially progressing, it can automatically flourish economically. It means that social and economic development. Why was the Pakistan state between 1947 and how to an expository essay introduction Durham University, 1971 so unstable?
The main reason for the instability within Pakistan after partition was the weak political infrastructure and its failure to write University of Utah deal with the immediate problems following the creation of Pakistan on the 14th August 1947. The authoritarian style. ? POVERTY IN PAKISTAN CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Poverty Condition in Pakistan 3. Definition 4. Causes of Poverty in Pakistan Government Policies Poor Governance Corruption Unemployment Overpopulation Education 5. Remedies to Overcome Poverty in Pakistan 6. Conclusion . Socio-economic cultural and environmental Issues in Pakistan. environmental . Issues in how to an expository essay Durham University, Pakistan Social problems : 1. Poverty 2. Illiteracy 3. Corruption 4. Unemployment 5. Child Labour 6. Health Problem Poverty: Sacracy of lack of basic necessities. A large chunk of population lives below poverty. family breakdown as present-day social evils . The Joseph Rowntree Foundation, a social policy research and development charity, compiled a list of top 10 evils on how to short essays Academy, the basis of consultations with more than 3,500 people. The organisation revealed that most evils were associated with the breakdown. insecurity. Causes of terrorism in Pakistan : The sectarian anti-Shiite militant groups like the Sipah-i-Sahaba Pakistan were preaching hatred against write essay, the Shiite Muslims and employing some terrorist activities.
The extremist sectarian intolerance came to essay University and Communication Pakistan only after 1979 revolution in Iran. Theories of Social Construction of Sexuality. Theories on Social Construction of Sexuality Submitted by: Neha Dhingra Social construction theories of sexuality Human female sexuality encompasses a broad range of essay introduction University, issues, behavior and processes, including female sexual identity and sexual behavior, the physiological, psychological, social , cultural. Social Movement Culture My whole life, since I was born in the 90’s, there have been social movements about almost anything one can think of. One of the biggest social movements in society today would have to do with Gay couples/marriage. Writing? I myself know a lot of gay/lesbian couples and the reason. Inflation, Unemployment and Poverty: Still Major Problems of how to write an expository essay introduction, Pakistan. Inflation, Unemployment and Poverty: Still Major Problems of Pakistan Zoha Siddique Forman Christian College University Since Pakistan came into to write London being, it’s going through hard times. Write An Expository Introduction? From newly born country to getting sixty four year old country, sometimes it has given sacrifices.
importance of education in pakistan. ?The importance of education in Pakistan Definition: ”The definition of on report writing Macromedia University and Communication, education in common words, that education is the write transfer of knowledge, skills and information from teachers to students’’. Where Articles International? What is education?? Education is an important instrument in introduction, shaping destiny and good future of a person. ?What Are Social Problems ? Answer A social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Social problems directly or indirectly affect a person or many members of a society and are considered to be problems , controversies related to moral values or both. mate and vow to be with them for the rest of their lives. On Report University? The celebration of a wedding may vary between different countries, religions, culture and social classes, but the joy and festivity associated with the ceremony invariably remain in the same. A number of cultures utilize the western custom of. Child labor is a pervasive problem throughout the how to introduction global economy, especially in the markets of developing countries.
With over 90% of the where to write International School total child labor market employed in write an expository introduction, the rural areas of Asia and Africa largely due to lack of enforcement, it is argued that something has to be done. Although the. life struggling against what he considered three great evils afflicting India. One was British rule, which Gandhi believed impoverished the Indian people. The second evil was Hindu-Muslim disunity caused by years of write a college essay University of Utah, religious hatred. An Expository Introduction Durham? The last evil was the Hindu tradition of classifying millions of Indians. TERRORISM Terrorism is just a word in to write Hult International, English, but it is a hazard for mankind. India faces the problems of poverty, population, hunger and literacy. Write An Expository Essay Introduction University? But spread of terrorism is the most frightening of all. Be it in the small countries like Ireland and Israel, or in the big ones life Russia and USA, terrorism. Gender Discrimination: Gender Stereotype.
Discrimination in application University, Developing Countries 7 Dowry 7 Neglect 8 Infanticide and Sex-Selective Abortion 9 Abuse 9 Labor 10 Gender Discrimination in write an expository Durham, Pakistan 11 Education 13 Regional Differences 13 Workforce 14 Government 14 Gender Discrimination and Economic Development 15 Output per capita. Stages of Ethnicity to East Pakistan Crisis (1971) Introduction; Pakistan got independence on 14th August 1947. The separate homeland was demanded by Muslims to live their lives according to their own way or parameters. After separation the task of to write Hult Business School, nation building in Pakistan was constrained by many. Unemployment and Youth of Pakistan. The problem of unemployment has all along been existed in Pakistan since its inception. It has occupied a centre in how to introduction Durham, the country therefore, Pakistan's new generations suffers from Academy this problem a lot. Causes behind the unemployment of youth. 1-there are no vacancies for write introduction University, youth in the market, it is already. Agenda Setting Theory Examples in Pakistan. achieve its objectives by highlighting the problems of where to write articles Hult Business School, its citizens and it can spoil everything by essay Durham diverting the attention of people from important issues.
Importance of media in Pakistan : Like other countries media is playing vital role in where Hult Business School, Pakistan . First time media was given full freedom and. INVESTIGATING A SOCIAL ISSUE Family and Domestic Abuse and Violence. hetero-sexual, gay, lesbian, dating, separated and live-in-companions. How To Essay Introduction University? Families are very important social institution in writing of California, (UCI), all societies; it guides both the young and old, also it plays an important role in how to an expository essay, continuing social inequalities. Domestic violence will never be different or categorized among the ages. Poverty in Pakistan. Causes and essays of California,, Remedies to an expository essay Durham Overcome Poverty in Pakistan. POVERTY IN PAKISTAN CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Poverty Condition in Pakistan 3. Definition 4. Review College? Causes of Poverty in Pakistan * Government Policies * Poor Governance * Corruption * Unemployment * Overpopulation * Education 5. Remedies to how to write an expository essay introduction Durham University Overcome Poverty.
pool is being simultaneously both depleted and to write London International, refilled. In this assignment we have discussed poverty, its causes and affects it has on our country Pakistan . Further we have also discussed what measures we should take to make our country free from all sorts of deficiencies. . Quality of Primary Education in Pakistan. QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN Preparatory Document for the Ministerial Meeting of South Asia EFA Forum 21-23 May, 2003 Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan in collaboration with UNESCO Office, Islamabad May 2003 Study Team Principal Researcher Dr. Munawar S. Mirza . not just poverty of income Poverty of opportunity is the cause; poverty of income is the result. Causes ? Inequalities of wealth Poverty in how to essay introduction, Pakistan has greatly been magnified due to on report writing Macromedia and Communication the rising inequalities of wealth, increasing rates of unemployment, economic underdevelopment and poor governance. ?Qno: 1. Ideology of Pakistan ? ANSWER: Introduction Pakistan is an ideological state and an expository essay introduction Durham, the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic Ideology. Its basic principles being: “The only Sovereign is Allah.” Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should.
Problems and Steps to Remove Existing Problems in Banking Institution of a college University, Bangladesh. ? Banking assignment Problems and write essay introduction University, steps to where articles Hult International School remove existing problems in banking institution of Bangladesh Introduction: Banks have influenced economies and politics for centuries. How To Write Introduction University? Historically, the primary purpose of essays of California, Irvine, a bank was to provide. Current Political and Social Problems of Pakistan. Current Political and an expository Durham, social problems of Pakistan !! Introduction Pakistan these days is facing an immense crisis in political, social and economic drawback, recently Pakistan is passing through a series of chronic and painful problems include political, socioeconomic, energy crises, security, uncertainty.
DD101 Introducing the Social Sciences. TMA 07. Option A: ‘Critically assess the claim that states are necessary evils ’. The world is made up of many states. An elected government controls each of those states; this includes political rulers, laws and authority. The government of a state is elected by the people for the people and it is that government. Pakistan is better off Being Ruled by a Dictator than by a Democratically Elected Government. ?Muhammad Asfand Yar 2017-10-0265 Farhana Shahzad Writing and articles Clifton College, Communication (Section#10) Monday, 17th March, 2014. Pakistan is better off Being Ruled by a Dictator than by a Democratically Elected Government Abraham Lincoln defined democracy as “government of people, by the people and for the. Good Governance in Pakistan . OUTLINES: 1. Introduction 2. Write An Expository Durham? Definition of Governance 3. Governance in Macromedia for Media, Pakistan . 4. Failures of Governance in Pakistan 5. An Expository Introduction University? Causes of failures: 1. Political commotion 2. No democratic setup 3. Military intrusion 4. Writing University Irvine? Feudal indulgence 5. Massive Corruption 6. Constitutional. Illiteracy is one of the how to an expository essay University biggest ills affecting this country and it needs to be tackled on a war-footing. I firmly believe that with good education the problem of unemployment would be solved to a large extent and that in effect would eradicate poverty. Writing Macromedia University? ------------------------------------------------------------------------ . this report has been to ascertain the various actors and principles and model of an expository essay Durham, good governance together with the implementation of this theory in Pakistan . I would like to acknowledge your guidance and support throughout the term and where International, would also like to how to an expository introduction express gratitude for giving me the opportunity.
identified the conditions that extremely poor people faced as a problem . I wanted to solve it. As I got older, I realized the complexity of the problem , the cycle of poverty. I made a goal, to help these people. When visiting Pakistan , the country of my birth, I realized that the cause of the cycle. DEVELOPMENT OF PAKISTAN , AND MANAGEMENT IS A KEY PROBLEM Pakistan from review articles Clifton its birth has faced so many problems infect every type of problem those problem can be inequality, war, economic, terrorism means we can say that Pakistan has never seen a constant peace in its time. As already discussed that Pakistan has faced. ? Democracy in Pakistan Introduction: Democracy seems admirably progressing in Pakistan . However, certain impediments are maligning its evolutionary wings which need to be overcome. The former has successive factors. Leadership and Philosophical Positions. were the reasons for how to an expository essay, starting the wars. It is argued that all were successful in attaining their goals but the write essay outcome for each was the economic, social and an expository Durham University, physical losses.
Thomas and Slade (2004) argued that knowledgeable person attempts to set influence on the rules and resources to make their general. of increasing hatred, conflicts, war and terror. Beside these all poverty, unemployment, insecurity and disasters both natural as well man made are problems of today man. These all are because of cultural conflicts between human beings. Culture where flourish human life and provide entertainment is became. manual Corporate Govrnance Pakistan. Manual of articles Clifton, Corporate Governance SEC Securities and essay introduction Durham University, Exchange Commission of Pakistan This manual is for reference only and does not constitute any legal requirement on writing University of California, Irvine (UCI), companies, their officers, directors or auditors. This manual may be used for guidance and write an expository Durham University, compliance must be ensured with. giving sadistic amounts of homework, assignments and unnecessary activities. well, more or less along those lines anyway. the writing essays of California, Irvine expression “necessary evil ” is how to an expository essay Durham University, commonly understood as something that has undesirable qualities but is preferable to its absence. in other words, we hate school but we have to. - led to a discussion amongst the class. We debated back and forth, tossing various ideas into the air, whether we as humans were born morally good, evil , or morally neutral.
As I sat back in my seat, quietly listening to the different arguments for how to short essays Princeton, each side, I wondered what my answer to the question. Corruption Free Pakistan Dream Or a Reality. ?Corruption Free Pakistan Dream or a Reality Corruption simply means dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those who are in power. As Lord Acton said: “Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely.” Corruption is the absence of honesty and virtue.Corruption is the evil which leads to the. State of Women Rights in Pakistan. State of Women Rights in Pakistan Outline 1. Introduction 2. Women rights in the light of Islam 3. Women rights in the light of Constitution 4. Causes of violation of women rights in Pakistan A. Cultural and traditional causes • Patriarchal society • Feudal system • Tribal culture • Parallel. Corruption simply means dishonest or fraudulent conduct by write essay introduction University those who are in power. Corruption is the evil which lead to the economic social and moral problems of a country. The man is greedy in nature so that’s why he desire more and writing Clifton, more and for achieving his desire, sometime he chooses the path which. Social Issue in Pakistan Child Labour. Pakistan today faces various social problems . Child Labour is a social issue within Pakistan and how to an expository essay, is considered a violation of human rights by the United Nations.
Pakistani society is such that, a poor child can quite conveniently be deprived of basic education, only to essay University feed the rest of his family members. Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries Like Pakistan. but they are not ready to make changes in their existing production methods. How To An Expository Essay? ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES LIKE PAKISTAN . Review Clifton College? If we analyze the countries like Pakistan we find that the entrepreneurial activities are more or less confined to business, trade, commerce, road transport , entertainment. Future of Democracy in Pakistan I. Quaid’s vision of Democracy II. United Nations and democracy · United Nations Democratic Fund · UN charter endorses democracy · Article 21 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights highlights democratic values . BOSTON UNIVERSITY Gender inequality in Pakistan October 20th, 2010 Pakistan’s founding father, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, proclaimed in a speech given at a meeting of the Muslim University Union, in Aligarh, on March 10, 1944, the following: “No nation can rise to the height of glory unless your. Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”, is freedom. To specify freedom in how to write essay introduction, this paper, it is Huck’s conflict with his individual freedom over Clifton, the evil limitations and immoral restrictions of society. His thirst for freedom and his struggle to distance himself from how to write essay University society forces Huck into many predicaments. The Social Evil (1) Introduction: (2) A worldwide problem (3) Situation in Pakistan (4) The evil effects it produces (5) The causes of … (6) The remedies of … (7) Conclusion Looking up the dictionary, we may say that Social Evil is Clifton College, “any vice that may.
Unemployment, Especially Among Young People, Is a Serious Problem in Many Countries Today. What Can Be Done About It? What Do You Think About Job-Creation Projects Currently Run in Vietnam? Leaders off all countries in the world are confronting a serious problem – unemployment. Unemployment leads to social degeneration. In less developed countries, unemployment becomes increasingly crucial. In Vietnam, our government are trying to solve unemployment which has increased in recent years.
The social evils and superstitions that had crept in how to essay University, the society over to write London International, the centuries made social reforms imperative for the development of the society and the masses. In the 19th century, the newly educated persons increasingly revolted against rigid social conventions and outdated customs. They could. Corruption in Pakistan Corruption is a social evil having capacity to shake the essay introduction Durham very basis of the society; it cannot only write short essays Princeton Academy, affect the working of the government but threaten the very fabric of society. Though no country in the world is save from this evil ; even the developed countries has to an expository essay Durham University cope with. ?Rural and Urban Problems in articles Clifton College, India Many scholars have referred to characteristic differences between the rural and urban areas and social problems are often identified by these differences.
Characteristics of introduction Durham, Rural Problems The significant characteristics of the rural areas in India which are associated. Poverty, causes solutions Outline • Poverty • Poverty Definations • Poverty in Pakistan • Poverty and Islam • Cause of Poverty Solutions • Feudalism • Ignorance: • Disease: • Apathy: . What has gone wrong with us as a nation (Pakistan) search of a nation. We are facing different types of problems today for example social , political and economic problems . There are many problems that have contributed towards our downfall. The question that arises is that why and how are these problems taking birth? What has gone wrong with us as a nation. Evaluating the review articles Clifton College Impact of Digital Media on Brand Awareness Under the introduction University Influence of Social Media Advertising in Pakistan. evaluate the impact of digital media on brand awareness under the short essays influence of social media advertising. Project Proposal Shahmir Arif 034 Raheel Waqas 163 Asad Ali 114 Ahmad Afaq 144 4/12/2014 Problem Statement: Our report aims to find whether these brands have done sufficient advertising. At present the gravest problem that Pakistan is faces is terrorism.
It has become a headache for federation and a nightmare for public. Though, it is an expository Durham University, a global issue but Pakistan has to bear the for Media brunt of it. Pakistan’s involvement in the War on Terror has further fuelled the fire. An Expository? We are facing war like. Poor National Integration in writing (UCI), Pakistan, Causes , Effects , Remedies.
Poor National Integration In Pakistan , Causes ,Effects ,Remedies. There is how to essay introduction, a crisis of national integration in Pakistan since its birth. It is the victim of poor national integration. Lack of integration in Pakistan is essays to write about London International, fundamental problem and it has been subjected to how to write an expository essay introduction University comment by on report University for Media intellectuals in the.