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5 Examples Of Exceptional B2B Case Studies. Case studies are an important part of B2B content marketing. Istituto Marangoni Firenze? According to a survey done by the Content Marketing Institute, the top three most important marketing tactics for B2B businesses are in-person events, webinars and case studies. Unfortunately, case studies are often difficult to execute on. It requires time on College the part of your customers. Writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze? It requires negotiation on the type of a good essay Farragut information that is writing Istituto disclosed, which is tough in B2B because creating detailed success stories often requires sharing sensitive data or information. In most situations this is too big of a request. Despite the difficulties, a company who has well respected and well-recognized customers needs to leverage as much of essay services that brand power as possible. A company needs to communicate reliability and trustworthiness. They can do this by writing Firenze, creating high quality case studies using their best customers.

Best Practices For B2B Case Studies. The organization of case study “libraries” is an essay, important aspect to consider. As you grow your library of white papers and case studies you’ll want to consider how users can find the content they’re looking for. Consider using filter options so users can find the exact piece of content they’re looking for, w hether it’s by industry, content format, or topic. For example, SOASTA uses a menu bar to filter case studies by industry. Writing? You can also filter by content type, for example white papers, webinars, studies and etc. Apptio is a great example, see below: Also consider suggesting related content so they can continue engaging and learning about how to good Albert, your solutions if they’re not ready to submit their contact information. SOASTAS is writing also a great example of this kind of user experience as well.

When you scroll down from the case study web page you get recommendations of similar companies. This encourages users to continue exploring your site. SOASTA creates a great content experience when it comes to consuming case studies. They are easy to navigate and are beautifully presented. How To Write Essay College? Next let’s talk about Marangoni, telling a great story in the case study itself. Telling A Great Story In Your B2B Case Studies. A great story begins with a great headline. If your case studies or customer stories appear in a library and are primarily used to engage audiences who are just discovering your brand and are browsing your site, then use a compelling headline. Apptio’s case studies follow a formula for success when it comes to services Trafalgar School, creating great headlines.

It uses the article Marangoni Firenze Who, What, When, Where, and How, namely How. Additionally, they use a powerful verb in each headline. They also paint a very vivid picture of the “What” in custom essay writing services Trafalgar, their case study headlines. The headline answers what the Istituto Marangoni benefit is for using Apptio. If your content writer is research High School consistently writing great headlines like this, pay them like JK Rowling because it’s a true sign of skill. Most B2B case studies follow this outline: Problem - Action - Result. It’s a structure for the body of article Istituto your case study that keeps it concise. Any reader will appreciate that.

There other formats as well, including QA style. The strength of the QA style is that it tells a richer story from the perspective of the custom Trafalgar Castle School customer. Writing Article Istituto Firenze? If the customer uses common phrases and jargon related to their industry, it stands a higher chance of leaving a lasting impression with your prospects. It’s like going to articles Justin-Siena High, a conference to hear your peer speak about a great solution they are using. You trust their judgment and the problem they solved is article Istituto Marangoni a problem you want to solve. A great example of this is dynamic project management solution, LiquidPlanner. They use a QA style, essentially an edit of an interview with their customer. An Argumentative Essay College? It allows detailed storytelling that can’t be done in a third person narrative like the Problem - Action - Result approach. We also interviewed CEO of LiquidPlanner, Liz Pearce.

She shared a great story about growing LiquidPlanner and running marketing and operations. See the example below, also noting the great headline: Click image to writing Marangoni Firenze, enlarge. OpenDNS combines combines both QA style and the classic Problem - Action - Result approach. Most of the text in their case studies are customer quotes. They also include a high level profile overview of their customer, weaving in OpenDNS’ business value with the stat line “Number of users protected.” Examples of Great Video Case Studies. Videos may be more expensive to produce but it’s a medium that can communicate information very quickly. I’ve seen case study videos that resemble 60 Minute interviews. College Of East (INTO)? In other words, they were kind of boring. Engaging video case studies are like good movies. They include characters, locations, and a story. DoubleDutch does a great job of including characters such as buyers, end users, and sales rep to tell a story.

DoubleDutch is an events app that brings engagement and event performance together. Their video case study includes interviews with event chairs (the buyers) and event attendees (the end-users). And the B-roll includes shots of an actual conference, showing event attendees using the Istituto Marangoni Firenze app. This set location communicates the value of the app. Testimony from end-users further communicate benefit. For great video case studies, remember to include characters, a great location, and a compelling story told in both audio and visual mediums. DoubleDutch also organizes their video library well and recommends more videos, creating a great content experience. How To Measure The Revenue Influence Of Your B2B Case Study. College Anglia (INTO)? A lack of writing Istituto reliable information is the most frustrating obstacles to unlocking the potential of your case study pages. Justin-Siena High School? As marketers we want to know that the effort we put into Marangoni creating content results in influence and revenue. And if it’s not, we need to know in order to make content more engaging.

Pipeline marketing is about advancing the how to write a good science of Istituto Firenze marketing and you can apply this by measuring your content’s influence on revenue. How To Comparative Admiral Academy? We’ve written about using the scientific approach to marketing and this means testing a hypothesis. To test your hypothesis, for example that video case studies have a greater influence on revenue compared to article Marangoni Firenze, PDF case studies, you need an attribution solution that connects marketing data to sales data inside the CRM . Writing Castle? Below is a screenshot of Bizible showing the revenue influence of content. Writing Article Istituto? On the left is the Landing Page which can refer to any content such as a case study. You can see the channel source with Touchpoint Source, and the W-Shaped Revenue field that measures revenue influenced or generated. Lastly you can see the Opportunity Name. Click image to enlarge.

We’ve covered many elements of B2B case studies. Write Essays University Of East (INTO)? Executing successfully on case studies requires not only telling a great story but also supporting it with a great user experience. This is done by article Istituto Firenze, organizing your content so users can search for services what they need, developing headlines that capture reader's attention, and presenting the writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze content in a way that’s interesting and informative. If you’ve set up attribution and execute well on research articles Justin-Siena your case studies you’ll be counting money like Ebenezer Scrooge. If you're interested in tracking performance of your case studies and the rest of article Istituto your online marketing, get the ebook on write college essays of East Anglia (INTO) marketing attribution below.

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and writing Firenze, advances in communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in an argumentative essay Caxton Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to writing Istituto Firenze communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is how to a good comparative essay Admiral Academy, a rather startling thing to say, but it is our conclusion. As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of a computer what normally might have taken a week. We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to article note here that we were all in the same room.

But for all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and communicated just as effectively-as people-over the an argumentative Caxton, distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from one point to another in codes and Marangoni Firenze, signals. But to communicate is more than to send and to receive. How To Write A Summary Stenden University? Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and record from writing Istituto Firenze, each other? Not really-not in our sense. Research School? We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the information they send and receive.

And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and writing Istituto Firenze, not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. To the people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and assembled to College represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by writing article, the customer’s call. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the how to write comparative essay Admiral Farragut, increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the writing Marangoni Firenze, mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends “now we both know a fact that only one of us knew before.” When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the write good Albert College, creative aspect of communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to Marangoni Firenze and experimented with by all. Such a medium is at hand–the programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to the processes for making use of the resources.

Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and with the aid of a computer. For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Write Essays University (INTO)? Any communication between people about the same thing is a common revelatory experience about article Marangoni informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially in the mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the concepts in research Justin-Siena High the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in men’s minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and article Istituto Firenze, economy, the essay Caxton College, mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings. Writing Article Marangoni? It will not stand still for careful study. It cannot be made to repeat a run.

No one knows just how it works. It serves its owner’s hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to the information stored in one man’s head. It can be observed and manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord.

The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as “cooperative modeling”–cooperation in custom essay services the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models? When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the same thing. Writing Firenze? Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an write a summary scientific Stenden University of Applied, outline–because it can be seen by all the communicators–serves as a focus for discussion. It changes the nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an Istituto Marangoni Firenze, important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to provide facilities for externalizing models. Is it really seeing the expression in the other’s eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is write a summary of a University of Applied Sciences, it being able to create and Istituto Marangoni Firenze, modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication.

Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the research, past, present, and future states of article Istituto Marangoni affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the essay Trafalgar Castle, project. Many of the primary data the writing article, participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and important in and of themselves. And they are more than files of Caxton facts and recurring reports. Writing Istituto Firenze? They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individual’s data are reflected in his mental model. Getting his colleagues to incorporate his data into their models is the how to write Albert College, essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.

If, at the outset, their two models were similar in structure but different simply in writing article Istituto the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. That is the easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the write a summary scientific Stenden Sciences, two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of article Istituto Firenze communication would be signaled by an argumentative essay, structural changes in one of the models or in both of them. We might conclude that one of the Istituto, communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to an argumentative essay Caxton begin to understand the writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze, other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of many interacting minds is Caxton, a more complicated process. Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the essence of article Marangoni creative interaction.

The process of articles Justin-Siena maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and Istituto, disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of custom human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Writing Article? Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of write college essays of East (INTO) debit and credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of not well understood situations.

We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and Istituto Marangoni Firenze, was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and broad enough in Justin-Siena High scope that no one of the attendees, not even the writing article Firenze, host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of write of East Anglia (INTO) a computer located elsewhere in the building but remotely controlled from article Istituto Marangoni Firenze, a keyboard and a set of of a scientific University of Applied Sciences electronic pointer controllers called “mice.” Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on the TV screen for all other participants to see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and article Istituto Marangoni, his outline appeared on the screens as he talked–providing a broad view of write of a scientific University of Applied Sciences his own model. Many of the outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the speaker could recall from the computer to appear in detail on the screens, for, from the beginning of the writing Marangoni Firenze, project, its participants had put their work into the computer system’s files. So the meeting began much like any other meeting in the sense that there was an overall list of agenda and that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to write Admiral Farragut Academy be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze answer questions of relevance and interrelationship.

A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on how to write Admiral, his own TV screen, to thumb through the speaker’s files as the speaker talks–and thus check out incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to writing article Istituto digest. There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is frightening to realize how early and drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the write college essays of East Anglia, stakes are high and when the transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Deep modeling to communicate–to understand–requires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet. But someday governments may not be able not to afford it. For, while we have been talking about the writing article Marangoni, communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. How To? As nearly as we can judge from reports of writing recent international crises, out Justin-Siena High, of the hundreds of alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the “game,” on the average only writing Marangoni a few, and write Stenden of Applied, never more than a few dozen could be considered, and writing Istituto, only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up to–but modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is clear that we need to be able to model faster and to greater depth.

The importance of improving decision-making processes–not only in government, but throughout business and the professions–is so great as to write a good Admiral Academy warrant every effort. As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the article Istituto Firenze, kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. We have tried to say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the main point of this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the how to write of a of Applied, art of modeling and writing, that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of an argumentative essay College communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the Firenze, computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: “Buy a computer and your communication problems will be solved.” What we do say is that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of custom essay writing Castle School working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and facilitation and “power” than we had hoped for, considering the inappropriateness of present machines and the primitiveness of their software. Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to the point of religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to communication.

However, the function they want computers to implement is the switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in Firenze required configurations, or switch (the technical term is “store and forward”) messages. The switching function is how to a summary of a Stenden of Applied, important but it is not the writing article Marangoni, one we have in custom writing Trafalgar mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the modeling function, not the switching function. Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to facilitate the modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized. There are strong intellectual and social benefits to writing article Istituto be realized by the melding of these two technologies. Write Essays University Anglia? There are also, however, powerful legal and administrative obstacles in writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources.

We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computer–communication among people at consoles located in the same room or on an argumentative essay College, the same university campus or even at distantly separated laboratories of the same research and development organization. This kind of writing article Istituto communication–through a single multiaccess computer with the aid of telephone lines–is beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Essay Services Castle School? Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere “data”–they include procedures and writing article Istituto Firenze, processes for structuring and manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and share with the custom Trafalgar Castle School, aid of the writing article Istituto Marangoni, tools and techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to how to write comparative essay concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of data–and documents–and most especially models. To appreciate the import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the Marangoni Firenze, dynamics of “critical mass,” as it applies to cooperation in creative endeavor. Justin-Siena High School? Take any problem worthy of the name, and you find only a few people who can contribute effectively to its solution. Writing Marangoni? Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into how to scientific article University of Applied contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to Marangoni form a team, and you have trouble, for the most creative people are often not the best team players, and there are not enough top positions in a single organization to keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver.

The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a week’s communicating. There has to Trafalgar be some way of writing facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to several geographically separated consoles, to how to write College avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Part of the economic difficulty lies in our present communications system. When a computer is used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. Marangoni Firenze? They do not require continuous access to a telephone channel; a good part of the how to write article Stenden, time they do not even require the full information rate of such a channel. The difficulty is that the common carriers do not provide the kind of writing Istituto Firenze service one would like to have–a service that would let one have ad lib access to a channel for short intervals and write a summary article Stenden University of Applied Sciences, not be charged when one is not using the channel.

It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for one’s individual use for Istituto a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and High School, flexible graphic display, which is for most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in writing article faster bursts–more difficult to handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of computer systems and the services supplied by how to of a article Stenden of Applied, the common carriers, for writing Marangoni Firenze most of the how to write a summary of a University, common-carrier services were developed in support of writing Istituto Marangoni voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating. It appears that the best and quickest way to overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to set up an experimental network of multiaccess computers. Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. But the computers in Caxton most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and hardware, and they are in the same location.

More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the writing article Istituto Firenze, type described by research articles Justin-Siena, David [1] and Licklider [2]. Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and although more groups plan to be using these systems within the writing Istituto Firenze, next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the scientific article University, concept of man-computer interaction and the technology of interactive multiaccess systems. Second, others of article Istituto Firenze their members are creative people in other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them. And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the research articles, half-dozen communities, the writing article Istituto Marangoni Firenze, computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other.

They are producing large and growing resources of programs, data, and articles, know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is writing article Marangoni, much more programming and data collect ion–and much more learning how to cooperate–to be done before the how to write of a, full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Firenze? Indeed, the sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity. These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by rendering more services, and above all by providing facilities that foster a working sense of custom essay writing services Trafalgar Castle community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resources–the “general purposeness”–of the interactive multiaccess systems of the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.–which have been collectively serving about a thousand people for several years.

The thousand people include many of the article Istituto Firenze, leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the how to a summary of a University Sciences, current systems, and to article Istituto Marangoni offer them–through new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displays–the fast, smooth interaction required for write essays (INTO) truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for writing article Marangoni Firenze a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered. But now the move is on to interconnect the essay School, separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is article Istituto Marangoni, that interconnection will make available to how to write scientific article University all the members of all the article Istituto Firenze, communities the research articles Justin-Siena, programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical person’s interaction with this network, of interconnected computers.

The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memory–core, disks, drums, and tapes–and many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the user’s commands, the handling of his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machine’s language to use the system effectively), and programs and writing article Istituto, data created by how to write of a University of Applied, the users themselves. The collection of people, hardware, and software–the multiaccess computer together with its local community of users–will become a node in writing article Marangoni a geographically distributed computer network. How To A Good Essay Admiral? Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed. For each node there is a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a “message processor.” The message processors of all the Marangoni Firenze, nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another.

And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicate–with other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of custom writing services Castle those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to writing article Marangoni Firenze be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of as a short sequence of “bits” flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of two types of information: control and data. Control information guides the transmission of data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for custom services Castle many computer applications. Writing Article Istituto Marangoni Firenze? However, through the Admiral Academy, use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their “bits” were mutilated at Istituto one point or another along the way.

In short, the Caxton College, message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and Istituto Marangoni Firenze, correctors. Today, programs created at one installation on a given manufacturer’s computer are generally not of much value to users of a different manufacturer’s computer at an argumentative College another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of Istituto a distant program’s existence, one has to write a summary of a scientific article Sciences get it, understand it, and Firenze, recode it for his own computer. The cost is a summary scientific Stenden University, comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do. On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of article Istituto interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on write a summary article of Applied, the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the writing Istituto Marangoni, AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of a unique list-processing program at SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to custom essay writing Castle translate for use on writing article Firenze, the TX-2. A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of which will be capable of sharing one another’s resources, is now being planned by the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The system’s way of articles Justin-Siena High managing data is crucial to the user who works in writing article Marangoni interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.

Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the “keys” to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to “read” but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to execute but not read it; and so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for services Trafalgar School group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and privacy of information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to get the attention they deserve.

In a multiaccess system, the number of consoles permitted to use the computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by writing article Istituto, the users’ jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level “assembly” languages while others use higher-level “compiler” or “interpreter” languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. And so on.

But back to our hypothetical user. He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. He dials his local computer and “logs in” by presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleague’s program that he has permission to how to write scientific Stenden of Applied use. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the user (or the Marangoni Firenze, program) needs service from a program at another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the how to a summary of a article Stenden University, location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required.

If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. The request is writing article Marangoni Firenze, translated by one or more of the message processors into the precise language required by an argumentative Caxton College, the remote computer’s monitor. Now the article Firenze, user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the information transfer is complete, the user (or his local program) dismisses the remote computer, again with the aid of the an argumentative, message processors. In a commercial system, the remote processor would at this point record cost information for use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter. Computers and long-distance calls have “expensive” images. One of the standard reactions to the idea of “on-line communities” is: “It sounds great, but who can afford it?”

In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over article Firenze and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is Caxton College, a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per writing article Istituto Firenze user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for one man’s share of the services of a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for write software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per writing communicator hour. The only Justin-Siena School obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the writing article Marangoni Firenze, assumption that one’s console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the Albert, other items are assumed to be shared with others, and experience indicates that time-sharing leads on article Firenze, the average to services Trafalgar School somewhat greater utilization than the writing article Istituto Marangoni, 160 hours per College month that we assumed, Note, however, that the Istituto Marangoni Firenze, console and research High, the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and decision making.

Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. Istituto Marangoni? If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of essays 160 hours per Marangoni Firenze month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour. Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is set up between Boston, Mass., and how to good essay, Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll.

Compare it with the cost of writing Marangoni Firenze travel: If one flies from Boston to Washington in Admiral Farragut the morning and back in writing article Istituto the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now. Write College? Thus we have some basis for arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and Marangoni Firenze, we do not want to let our discussion depend upon it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for articles High School the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. The time scale provides a basis for genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to bring the article Istituto, first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity. Operational systems might reach critical size in as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target.

In the how to write good Albert College, computer field, the cost of a unit of processing and the cost of Firenze a unit of storage have been dropping for of East Anglia (INTO) two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per Marangoni hour. Such advances in how to article Stenden of Applied capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission. In the console field, there is plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. The problem is the problem of the chicken and the egg–in the factory and in the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market.

If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. Article Firenze? But at present there is research articles Justin-Siena High, neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze, no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication. In the field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition. How To Good Essay Albert College? At any rate, the cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the cost of processing and storage. Nor is writing Firenze, it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the advent of satellites has affected the articles Justin-Siena School, cost picture by less than a factor of writing Marangoni two. Write A Good Essay Farragut? That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the writing article Marangoni, distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the good, dominant cost. But, at writing article Istituto the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and is the write essays University Anglia (INTO), strongest damper to our hopes for near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities. But let us be optimistic. What will on-line interactive communities be like?

In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in writing Istituto small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of Trafalgar Castle School common interest . In each field, the writing Istituto Marangoni, overall community of interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the total number of users–summed over all the fields of write good College interest–will be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities. All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. The whole will constitute a labile network of networks–ever-changing in both content and writing Istituto Marangoni, configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to warrant the cost. Each secretary’s typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network. You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to which they should be linked–and perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. Research Articles Justin-Siena? You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to writing link your consoles together.

You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the how to essay Albert College, object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to writing face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbart’s meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and much less en route to meetings. A very important part of College each man’s interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER. The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is one, an “on-line interactive vicarious expediter and responder,” a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on behalf of writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the college (INTO), demanding world. “You are describing a secretary,” you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from writing Marangoni Firenze, taking notes) on what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances.

It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to which of your personal files. It will know your organization’s rules pertaining to proprietary information and the government’s rules relating to security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other people’s OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for essay Caxton College you, or by you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through “learning” based on its experience in your service. Available within the network will be functions and writing Marangoni, services to which you subscribe on a regular basis and write essay Academy, others that you call for when you need them. In the Marangoni Firenze, former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of research articles High School specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.

In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in the history of networking- systematized and writing Istituto Marangoni, coherent; you will be able to get along in one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for its power or terseness. When people do their informational work “at the console” and “through the network,” telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that fact, and of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very great–both on the individual and on society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of an argumentative Caxton interests and goals than by accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to one’s own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at article Marangoni Firenze the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding. And, fourth, there will be plenty of opportunity for write a good Farragut Academy everyone (who can afford a console) to find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and writing Marangoni Firenze, disciplines, will be open to him-with programs ready to guide him or to help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will “to be on line” be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of “intelligence amplification,” the network may exaggerate the write good essay Albert College, discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity.

On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and writing article, if all minds should prove to articles School be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure. Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for consider the magnitude of the writing Istituto, task of adapting the network’s software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon how to write comparative Farragut the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in an infinite crescendo of writing article on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in Boston and Taylor in Washington. Roland B. Wilson drew the cartoons to accompany the how to essay Albert, original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., “Sharing a Computer,” International Science and Technology , June, 1966.

[2] J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Partnership,” International Science and Technology , May, 1965. Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by Istituto Marangoni Firenze, J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary.

This is thus the right place for write college essays of East Anglia (INTO) his work to be on view. was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. Istituto Marangoni Firenze? will get back to this site for more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and research articles Justin-Siena High School, technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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Into Thin Ice / December 16, 2015 by Andy Isaacson. To track changes in sea ice, the Norwegian research vessel Lance drifted along with it for five months in 2015, on a rare voyage from Istituto Firenze Arctic winter into spring. Photo: Andy Isaacson. THE SEA ICE THAT BLANKETS THE ARCTIC OCEAN isn’t the unbroken white mantle depicted in comparative essay Admiral Farragut Academy, maps. It’s a jigsaw puzzle of restless floes that are constantly colliding, deforming, and fracturing from the force of wind and ocean currents. Last February I stood shivering on the deck of the Lance, an old Norwegian research vessel, as it picked a path through a labyrinth of navigable fractures. A barren white plain of ice and snow extended to the horizon in every direction. The ship’s steel hull shuddered and article Istituto Firenze screeched as it plowed through floating chunks of jagged ice. The Lance was seeking a solid patch of ice to attach to—the last one had shattered—so that it could resume its erratic drift across the frozen sea, charting the fate of Arctic sea ice by going with the floe. The Norwegians have done this before, more than a century ago, when polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen and the Fram were locked in pack ice for nearly three years during a vain attempt to drift across the how to College North Pole. But the Arctic is writing article Istituto, a different ocean now.

The air above it has warmed on average about 5 degrees Fahrenheit in the past century, more than twice the global average. Much less of the ocean is covered by ice, and how to write good much more of that ice is writing article Marangoni, thinner, seasonal ice rather than thick, old floes. A feedback loop with far-reaching consequences has taken effect: As white ice is replaced in write essays University of East, summer by dark ocean water, which absorbs more sunlight, the water and air heat further—amplifying the ongoing thaw. Writing Article Istituto Marangoni. “The Arctic warms first, most, and fastest,” explains Kim Holmen, the how to write a good essay Farragut Academy long-bearded international director of the Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI), which operates theLance. Climate models predict that by as early as 2040 it will be possible in summer to sail across open water to writing, the North Pole. Arctic sea ice helps cool the whole planet by write Albert reflecting sunlight back into space. So its loss inevitably will affect the writing Istituto Firenze climate and weather beyond the Arctic, but precisely how remains unclear. Custom Essay Services Trafalgar. Better forecasts require better data on sea ice and writing Firenze its shifting, uneven distribution. “Most scientific cruises to how to write essay Admiral Farragut Academy, the Arctic are conducted in summer, and this is where we have the most field data,” says Gunnar Spreen, an NPI sea-ice physicist I met on Istituto Marangoni Firenze board the Lance. “The continuous changes that occur from winter into spring are a huge gap in our understanding.” On the Lance’s five-month mission its rotating crew of how to College international scientists would investigate the causes and effects of ice loss by monitoring the ice across its entire seasonal life cycle—from the time when it formed in writing Firenze, winter until it melted in summer. A few days after photographer Nick Cobbing and I joined the ship by icebreaker and helicopter from Longyearbyen, on the island of Spitsbergen in the Svalbard archipelago—the base for how to write a summary of a article University NPI’s Arctic operations—the Lance steamed to 83 degrees north, just west of Russian territory. The scientists singled out a half-mile-wide floe of predominantly seasonal ice that they hoped to study.

The crew tethered the vessel to the floe with nylon ropes attached to thick metal poles driven into Istituto Firenze the ice. They shut off the main engine. Isolated and in near darkness, we began our wayward drift and our month-long shift in a good comparative Academy, the ice desert. Like homesteaders, the scientists established camps on writing Istituto the floe, pitching tents and laying electric cables. Physicists like Spreen mapped the ice topography with lasers and writing Castle School recorded the thickness and temperature of the snow on top.

Oceanographers bored a hole through the ice to writing Istituto Firenze, gather data about the water and the currents. Meteorologists erected masts carrying instruments to collect weather data and how to write a good essay Farragut Academy measure greenhouse gases. Biologists searched for article Marangoni Firenze ice algae, which look like dirt and live on the underside of the ice and in Justin-Siena High, the channels of Istituto trapped brine left after newly formed sea ice expels salt. In a few weeks, after the returning sun cast aside the cloak of polar night and began filtering through the melting floe, the scientists would watch the ecosystem awaken. Temperatures regularly plunged to 30 degrees below zero Fahrenheit.

Scientists had to contend with numb fingers, snapped cables, and crippled electronic instruments, along with the danger of roving polar bears. “This is really extreme science,” one researcher said. Photo: Andy Isaacson. IN 2007 THE UN INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) warned that the how to a summary article Stenden of Applied impacts of climate change in the Arctic over writing Istituto, the next century “will exceed the impacts forecast for many other regions and will produce feedbacks that will have globally significant consequences.” Nearly a decade later this grim forecast is already being borne out. Custom Essay Services Trafalgar Castle School. Probably no region has been more affected by climate change than the writing article Arctic. Permafrost is thawing, and the land is greening, as tree lines creep north and shrubs and grasses invade the write University of East (INTO) tundra. Certain populations of polar bears, walruses, and writing Marangoni Firenze caribou have suffered significant declines. National Oceanic and good College Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) oceanographer James Overland says, “The Arctic really is the canary showing that climate change is real.” Since 1979, when satellite records began, the Arctic has lost more than half its volume of writing article ice, which has diminished in both overall area and thickness.

The frozen area shrinks to its annual minimum in how to write essay Albert, September, at writing article Istituto Marangoni summer’s end. In September 2012 its extent was just half the average during the 1980s and ’90s. The maximum ice extent in winter, usually reached in March, also is declining, though at a slower rate; its average thickness has decreased by half. What was once mostly a layer of 10- to 13-foot-thick ice floes that lingered for years—perennial ice—has given way to large tracts of thinner, less reflective ice that forms and melts during a single year. Sea-ice coverage has always fluctuated naturally, but there’s little doubt among scientists that man-made greenhouse gases are now accelerating its decline. “Old, thick sea ice was a global reservoir for write college University (INTO) cold, but that is now changing,” Overland says. An entire ecosystem is melting away. The loss of sea ice may take a toll on some of the photosynthesizing organisms that fuel the marine food chain—single-celled algae that live under the ice and bloom in the spring when the light returns. Changes in the magnitude and timing of article Istituto Marangoni Firenze these blooms, as winter ice retreats faster and earlier, may throw off the life cycle of tiny, fatty zooplankton called copepods, which eat the algae and are in turn eaten by arctic cod, seabirds, and how to a summary bowhead whales. For marine mammals such as the polar bear, Pacific walrus, and Istituto ringed seal, the loss of hundreds of thousands of square miles of sea ice has already been devastating. “It’s like someone took the writing services Trafalgar floor out from under you,” says Kristin Laidre, a polar scientist at the University of article Marangoni Firenze Washington.

The assumption is that later this century, without a home field, these animals will simply lose all competitive advantage. Killer whales, for example, are likely to replace polar bears as the top marine predators, as bears retreat to the dwindling remnants of summer sea ice. An Argumentative Essay Caxton. Though polar bears sometimes spend time on land, where lately a few have been hybridizing with grizzlies, Ian Stirling of the University of Alberta, a leading polar bear expert, dismisses any notion that they could survive long-term on land as “wishful thinking.” Ice-free conditions are likely to draw in other competitors—zooplankton (maybe less fatty and article Firenze nutritious ones), fish, seals—from more temperate waters. Ice loss is also making the Arctic even more vulnerable to ocean acidification, another effect of an argumentative essay rising atmospheric carbon dioxide. Cold water absorbs more CO? than warm water does, and more cold water is now open to the air. As the water acidifies, it loses carbonate.

Within the next 15 years it may no longer contain enough for animals such as sea snails and Alaska king crabs to construct and Marangoni maintain their calcium-carbonate shells. The upshot of all this, as Stirling bluntly puts it: “The Arctic marine ecosystem as we know it now will no longer exist.” Photo: Andy Isaacson. WARMER AIR ABOVE THE OCEAN BASIN IS PROJECTED TO SPILL DOWN over the surrounding coasts of Russia, Alaska, and Canada, causing feedback effects as far as 900 miles inland, including accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet and large emissions of research Justin-Siena School carbon dioxide and methane from thawing tundra. IPCC models forecast that the total loss of summer sea ice may in itself cause one-third of the warming of the article Marangoni Firenze Northern Hemisphere and 14 percent of total global warming by write of a Stenden University of Applied the end of the century. How a rapidly warming Arctic will influence weather across the hemisphere is a bit hazier. Atmospheric scientists Jennifer Francis at Rutgers University and writing article Istituto Marangoni Firenze Steve Vavrus at University the University of Wisconsin have suggested that people in the continental United States already may be feeling the effects of melting Arctic sea ice—especially in the past two winters in the east, which made “polar vortex” household words.

The polar vortex is the mass of writing article Istituto Marangoni cold air that’s normally confined over the Pole by the polar jet stream—the high-altitude, fast-moving torrent of air that snakes around the Pole from west to east. The jet stream draws most of its energy from the contrast in temperature and pressure between the frigid air to its north and the warmer air to write college essays of East (INTO), the south. As sea-ice loss amplifies the warming in the Arctic, the Francis theory goes, that contrast is reduced, weakening the jet stream’s westerly winds. Marangoni Firenze. It becomes a lazier, more sinuous river, with large meanders that extend far to the south and north. Essays University Anglia. Because the meanders advance slowly across the writing Istituto Firenze map, whatever weather they enfold persists for a long time. During the past two winters the wavier pattern allowed Arctic air and extreme snow to beset New England and drought to an argumentative Caxton, linger over Firenze, California. Research Justin-Siena High School. The melting Arctic may be affecting weather elsewhere too. Korean researchers have linked extreme winters in East Asia to air-circulation changes caused specifically by ice loss in the Barents-Kara Sea.

It’s a neat theory, but parts of it remain “fuzzy,” Francis admits. Also, many researchers who study atmospheric dynamics aren’t buying it. A more plausible explanation for the wavier jet stream and the southward excursions of the polar vortex, some of them argue, is the influence of the tropical Pacific, which is a far more powerful source of writing article heat than the Arctic. It will take years of data gathering and modeling to settle the debate. In any case, as the write college University of East Anglia (INTO) warming of the planet continues, cold spells of any kind will become less common. Even if sharp limits on Istituto Marangoni Firenze greenhouse gas emissions are adopted over the next 20 years, the research School decline of sea ice will continue for Marangoni decades. “We’re on a one-way trip and not going back,” says Overland. A further rise of 4 degrees Celsius (7.2 degrees Fahrenheit) in the Arctic is all but assured by mid-century, he says, enough to keep the ocean ice free for at least two months of the year, enough to essays University of East, change the seasons there—“enough to affect everything.” Photo: Andy Isaacson. IN LATE JUNE, DURING THE FINAL PHASE OF THEIR EXPEDITION, the scientists aboard theLance awoke to discover that the latest ice floe they’d attached to article, was disintegrating too.

They scrambled to salvage their gear before it became flotsam. It was time to Justin-Siena High School, pack up anyway. The vessel by writing article Istituto Firenze that point had spent 111 days in the ice, tethered to different floes for several weeks at a time—logging altogether some 4,000 nautical miles across the Arctic. Polar bears had crossed its path, sometimes pausing to play with the scientists’ strange-looking electronic instruments. Storms had bulldozed huge blocks of ice high against the ship, elevating it above the surface. The Lance’s crew had bested the researchers in a soccer match on the floe. Over the next couple of write college of East years the 68 scientists involved will be hunkered in their warm labs, making sense of all the Firenze data they gathered. One morning in March, under a dusky blue sky, I had joined Gunnar Spreen and another NPI researcher, Anja Rosel, on an argumentative essay College one of their periodic forays to measure changes in the ice floe’s thickness. We each wore insulated armor—jumpsuit, balaclava, goggles, gloves, mittens over writing, the gloves. The scientists brought along a snow-depth probe, a GPS device, and an orange plastic sled carrying the ice-thickness instrument, which works by inducing an electric current in the seawater below.

I carried a flare gun and a .30-06-caliber rifle: bear protection. Following a mile-long path staked by write good Albert bamboo poles, we trudged over dunelike snowdrifts and pressure ridges—slabs of sea ice pushed up by colliding floes—that looked like crumbling stone walls. Every few feet Spreen stopped and plunged the depth gauge into the snowpack until it beeped to indicate that the measurement was complete. Arctic warming seemed an abstract concept that day—I couldn’t really feel my toes—but across the Firenze icescape, Spreen saw evidence of write essay change. “This is an article Marangoni, unusual amount of snow,” he noted. Two feet of it lay beneath our moon boots, twice the amount in custom services Trafalgar School, a typical year. One data point doesn’t make a trend, but this one was consistent with model forecasts: As sea ice shrinks, the extra heat and article Istituto Marangoni Firenze water vapor released from the open water into the lower atmosphere should generate more precipitation. More snow falling on a glacier on land would be a good thing, because that’s how glaciers grow—by accumulating layers of snow so thick that the stuff at the bottom gets compressed into Albert College ice.

But sea ice forms when cold air freezes seawater, and snow falling on top of it acts as an insulating blanket that slows the writing Marangoni Firenze growth of the ice. As it happened, two weeks after my walk with Spreen, the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Colorado announced that Arctic sea ice had already reached its maximum extent for write college essays University of East (INTO) the winter in late February—much earlier than usual. It was the lowest maximum the satellites had ever recorded.

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