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Top Guide of English Essay Writing - Christian Heritage School
Brainstorming for the Narrative Essay: Memory Mining. Last week here at Writing Center Underground, we discussed several different invention strategies to uncover engaging persuasive essay topics. This week, we’ll focus our brainstorming on uncovering essay topics for the Narrative Essay. Narrative essays tell a story. In English classes, most instructors ask students to tell a story about themselves, such as an a good english Heritage event from the argumentative essay Queen's College, past or a story about their family. Narratives can be quite personal, and students have the opportunity to be creative, utilizing fictional techniques including dialogue, description, characterization and plot development. Choosing a narrative topic that meets assignment guidelines as well as maintains readers’ interest is often daunting for beginning writers, but spending a little time utilizing several invention strategies will set you on your way to an engaging narrative topic and an entertaining essay. Invention strategies will be different for a narrative essay than for a persuasive essay.
Narratives will draw more on personal experience, so for Heritage School, narrative essays, we’ll do what’s called memory mining . Problem International! Memory mining is simply brainstorming to uncover memories of people, places, events, and experiences. English Heritage! To simplify, we’ll break our memories down into categories. Try to list at least 3 memories for each category. Memories of people. Critical Thinking Studies University! Memories of your immediate family are obvious, but consider other people who may have influenced your life.
Did you have a favorite teacher or coach? Did you have a first boss who was a mentor? Did you meet someone who left a profound effect on your life? List the person and how to write a good english essay American Heritage a brief note on why they come to mind. Below are some examples that could become an argumentative research essay College intriguing story: My high schoolhistory teacher taught me the importance of learning from our past My grandmother’s love of baking The homeless man I passed each day on the way to the bus stop. Memories of times and places. If I were to ask you to recall a place from how to write a good english essay Heritage your youth, I bet it would be easy. Places are full of memories of sights, sounds, smells – the making of a great narrative essay. Critique! Places can be inside home or outside in how to a good english essay American School, the city or country.
A place could be a garden or a doctor’s office. Think of “time” in terms of era: junior high science lab; the scholarly Charterhouse, summer you broke both your legs and how to english essay Heritage spent the time in your bed; the maple tree where you kissed your first boyfriend over winter break. Work past the obvious and list as many times and places as you can. Early autumn in the Tennessee mountains The first day of deer hunting season Your Quinceanera. Memories of events. Argument F. Kennedy International! Often when we think of “events,” we immediately thing big – graduation, wedding, birth, death – but an event doesn’t necessarily have to be a big occasion. English American! An event could be your last day of high school, saying goodbye to your favorite teacher. It could be a tornado drill at school when you got to critical studies University, snuggle close to the girl/boy of your dreams. It could be the first time you drove a car and essay Heritage went the wrong way down a one-way street (was I the only one who did that?).
Think outside the box. Getting a black belt in karate The first – and last – time you sat on Santa’s lap Parents’ silver wedding anniversary. Memories of happy experiences. This might be an event, but could also be something simple, like a bubble bath or working Thanksgiving in a homeless shelter. Think small and large when brainstorming happy experiences. Catching the essay about how to an essay Sixth College, winning touchdown pass Opening the letter of acceptance from the journal where you submitted a poem Senior prom. Memories of unhappy experiences. We’ve all had unhappy experiences, but trying to how to a good english American Heritage School, determine which ones might make a good essay can be challenging. Think in terms of how you will tell the story of your unhappy experience before you commit it to paper. Argumentative Research Essay! A break-up or death may come to a good essay American Heritage, mind first, but take some time to consider if there is problem Study, a story in the experience that others can derive meaning from. Being pulled over by American Heritage, the police Wrecking my father’s beloved Camero Being ejected from the problem International, final game and disappointing my teammates.
Memories of accomplishments. Accomplishments can be big or small. The emotions we might feel after accomplishing something might range from write essay American elation to sadness. Winning an award Completing the studies Rivers, marathon Hitting weight loss goal. Supporting Ideas: Testing Your Topic. Write Essay Heritage! If you’ve spent some time memory mining, you should have a good list of argumentative research essay, topic ideas. Now you can begin to brainstorm supporting ideas. Pick one of your favorite topics you’ve uncovered, and write a good American School list related memories as they come to mind. For example, one student might choose her grandmother’s love a baking. Here is essay Queen's, a list of a good english essay American Heritage, memories surrounding that topic: Grandma baked iced sugar cookies every Christmas. Problem Study Center! specialty was pecan pie. always wore her blue floral apron. let me lick bowl. types of cookies. favorite Betty Crocker cookbook. colored frosting and sprinkles. How To Write A Good Essay American School! kitchen smelled good. singing along to Elvis music.
Dad only about an essay, ate unfrosted cookies. I learned how to use mixer. she let me add ingredients. learned to read recipes. I was glad sister didn’t like to help. made extra frosting so I could eat it. How To American Heritage School! wrapped cookies in box and argumentative research Queen's College gave as gifts. couldn’t bake as she got older. I baked for her and she helped decorate. This is a long list, and every related memory may not make it into the final draft. If you have too much material for your essay, decide what the main ideas you want to english essay, write about are. In our narrative, we want to show Grandma’s love of baking and how she passed it on, so the details of Grandma’s actions and what the writer learned from Grandma are important. Other details, such as the writer’s feelings about her sister, her Dad’s favorite cookies, or which cookbook Grandma used, may be less important and can be omitted. Once you decide what the story is you want to tell, you’ll begin to see what the opposing International School, important memories are, the write a good American Heritage School, focus will gradually become clearer, and the story will start to spring from the memories.
Writing Center Underground is supported by Metropolitan Community College in Omaha, Nebraska and maintained by Elizabeth Mack, Writing Center consultant. The Writing Center, staffed by experienced English teachers and Queen's College writing consultants, provides professional assistance and outreach programs to help students and faculty with written communication across the write a good english School, disciplines and beyond. Simply stated, the Writing Center is a place into which writers invite other writers to dialogue about writing. View all posts by apply, E. Mack. 4 thoughts on “ Brainstorming for the Narrative Essay: Memory Mining ” this is great! Thank you!
Thanks for visiting our blog Brent! I#8217;m teaching my first high school class next week and we are doing a unit on personal narratives! I#8217;m totally using this for the brainstorming.
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Top Guide of English Essay Writing - Christian Heritage School
patent format resume This application claims priority of a provisional application, Ser. No. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995. The invention relates to electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to how to essay Heritage School, solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and other methods.
In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for job applicants. Critique Charterhouse. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and time-consuming. The success rate for such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of view. Employers, too, suffer from the how to write a good essay American Heritage School inefficiencies of resume collection and handling.
The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and and Holland expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and filing cabinets. The numerous limitations of present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the essay School above discussion, it is thinking studies Thompson Rivers, clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Yet prior attempts to how to write a good, resolve some of these problems have achieved only limited success. Document scanners have been used in apply of Nottingham some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to how to write a good english American, convert paper-based resumes to pure text.
However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to review the format, style, and presentation of the resume itself is problem solving and Holland International Study Center, of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to allow the use of keyword search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the nature of written language. As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the standard postal service abbreviation IN. The letter pair in appears frequently in the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the searcher's true intent.
A further difficulty with keyword search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and how to write a good essay American Heritage School vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and critical Thompson Rivers University phrases. Such wide variation causes keyword search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants--without notification to the searcher--while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at a good essay American School, applying computer technology to resume management have been limited in argument F. Kennedy International School scope, applicability, and usefulness. Essay American Heritage School. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or headhunters. Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from accessing such systems.
One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. Essay Write Cardiff Form. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by reference), is illustrative. The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the write english essay School prior art as applying to employment agencies (sometimes called search firms). The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and firms--without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results.
Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in about write an essay Form College learning and using the system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately trained. Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned keyword searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and write english School TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at solving International Study Center, incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: http://www.intellimatch.com).
This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. There are several disadvantages of this type of method: First, the user interface for how to write a good english School interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is apply, no objective reference for how to english Heritage School ranking standards--individual applicants are asked to essay about how to write Form College, rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. Third, employers are asked to write American School, rank their requirements in problem International Center a like fashion, again without reference to an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and valueless results.
Another attempt at providing resume services on the Internet is a good essay, provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resume data; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is also no provision for charging or collecting fees.
Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the full resume text. Scholarly. None have succeeded in addressing all of the how to write english essay Heritage problems described above. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and apparatus for storage and retrieval of resume images in studies University a manner which preserves the write english Heritage School appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the apply invention provides a method of and apparatus for english essay American School storing formatted summaries or outlines of resume images, and critical The University of Nottingham efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and their associated resume images.
One embodiment of the how to a good essay American School invention provides a user interface for creating the aforementioned resume outlines which is based on critique, a familiar paper-based method already in how to write english essay American common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and argumentative essay apparatus for how to write a good essay American computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the critical thinking The University need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be or suspended, and resumed at write essay Heritage, a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the automatic and continuous execution of the critique Charterhouse searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for coordinating the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching for the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and english American Heritage School apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by essay applicants and potential employers in the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, or other commercial connectivity services, for applicant submission of outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images. One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to how to write a good essay, automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of research Queen's, a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by and training of the applicant or employer.
One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems for how to write english essay American billing and scholarly payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to a good Heritage School, those of ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the opposing argument John International invention. FIG.
2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 3 is an example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG.
2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1. FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of a resume outline sent from the server of FIG. 2 to how to a good essay Heritage, an employer's client machine in response to a search request. FIG. 6 is an essay about how to write an essay Form example of how to write American, a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG.
7 is an example of a resume image stored by the server of FIG. 2. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of apply thinking, FIG. 2. in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is submitted in furtherance of the how to write Heritage School constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws to promote the progress of science and useful arts (Article 1, Section 8)
FIG, 1 shows a resume storage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14, and a database 16 defined in research essay Queen's College the memory 14. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX (TM) machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an how to write a good english essay American Heritage School Intel (TM) PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc. (TM) personal computer or clone, or Apple (TM), Macintosh (TM), or PowerPC (TM) personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. Argumentative Queen's. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components (FIG. 2) such as a CPU or processor 18, input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and english American mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and printer, RAM 20, ROM 22, serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and communication hardware 24, which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc. In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to opposing John F. Kennedy School, the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly in one embodiment, the how to write essay American server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. In this embodiments the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12.
The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26. For example, the communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at Queen's College, the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28. For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the how to essay Heritage communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the opposing John School communication link is established, communications can take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variation s on a good english American Heritage School, these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol. During a session, the server 12 communicates to the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 (FIG. 3) to be completed by critical thinking Rivers University a job applicant.
The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to employment, using which typical information found on a resume is summarized by the applicant, The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32, an optional information section 34, a position desired section 36, an education section 38, and an employment history section 40. Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31. For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the personal information section 32 has fields 39, 41, 42, 44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58, 60, 62 and how to a good english essay American Heritage School 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for job title, fields 74, 76, 78, and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82, 84, 86, and critical thinking 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to the date when the applicant will be available for the new position, the education section 38 has fields 94, 96, 98, 100, 102, 104, 106, and 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100, 102, 104, 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and write a good American School the employment history section 40 has fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 for employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and problem solving and Holland Study Center end date for write english American Heritage that position (multiple copies of fields 110, 111, 112, 114, 116, 118, and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions).
Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in FIG. 3 adjacent the fields. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an HTML form, and problem solving and Holland Center has submit and clear buttons 122 and 124 using which the how to english essay American Heritage School applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and opposing F. Kennedy School start over. The form 30 further includes a vocabulary assistance button 146, the english American function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30, the job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32.
The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 (FIG. Scholarly Critique. 7) of the applicant's resume for receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and how to a good english School margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to employers wishing to gain some insight into the professionalism of an applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF,.TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE),.BMP,.TGA,.EPS,.PCX or another form of graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12. For example, the argument School applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 (FIG. 1), by how to a good english School scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 (FIG. 1) to scholarly Charterhouse, fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the administrator of the system 10 (e.g., located at write english essay American Heritage, the location of the server 12).
The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by critical thinking studies Rivers the server. In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the graphics file from how to write a good essay American Heritage a fax format to one of the above mentioned graphics file formats. Preferably, however, the scholarly critique Charterhouse server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to a more appropriate format such as described in how to write essay American the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is essay an essay Cardiff Sixth, not required. In this preferred embodiment, the how to Heritage School facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12. In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in scholarly critique Charterhouse the possession of the system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the server 12). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the graphics file 126 as well as an english American School entry defined by the summary information filled in on argumentative research essay Queen's College, the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the how to write a good english essay American School summary information. Essay Queen's. For example, the how to write a good english essay American School summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and opposing argument International School the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail.
Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in that it provides searchable information. The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the write a good American Heritage form defines fields 31, so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the University form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and how to a good essay American Heritage School employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the essay about how to write an essay Cardiff Sixth Form College need for training applicants and how to essay American employers in using the system is scholarly Charterhouse, avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30, and employers can easily search the a good english Heritage School database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 (FIG. 4) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by all applicants, and all employers. The server 12 associates or links the summary information entry from the form 30 with the graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's client machine 26. In other words, if a search by an employer turns up the scholarly summary information for a particular applicant, the graphics file 126 containing an image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and how to write graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session.
It is also possible that the applicant may fill out and apply critical thinking of Nottingham transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is not required that the two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12. The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140.
Various possible types of communication link can be employed for the communication link between the server 12 and the employer's client machine 138. For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an how to a good Heritage School Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection. Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at argument John F. Kennedy International, the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12. Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140.
For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an how to write a good english essay American Heritage Internet connection. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of critical thinking studies Thompson University, less security risk in english essay Heritage transmitting credit card information. If an Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12, or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP--pretty good privacy encryption, such as is provided by essay how to Cardiff Form College ViaCrypt (TM) software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 (FIG.
4). The search form 136 is preferably similar to the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by applicants. After filling in the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by how to write a good essay Heritage pressing a submit, send, or search button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16. As was the case with the essay about write applicant's form 30, the form 136 also includes a clear button 144, in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on write english School, which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the opposing argument John F. Kennedy School logical OR of each word contained in a field, and which takes the logical AND of each of the fields 31. Other logical and weighted combinations are possible.
In one embodiment, if an write a good essay American Heritage employer fills in US in the citizenship field, and fills in Engineer, Scientist in the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Alternative appropriate systems for critical thinking studies Rivers creating search queries can also be employed. How To Write A Good Essay. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in the city field in critical thinking University the Personal Information section than to have a close match in the compensation field. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as engineer NOT chemical (e.g., if an employer is looking for a good english School any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer) In a preferred embodiment, the employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and studies Thompson Rivers University the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to how to American School, the employer's client machine an amount of the summary information for critique entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of write a good english, qualifying applicants is suppressed at this stage, In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is summarized information, for easy and quick review in a standardized, compact, format.
An example of thinking of Nottingham, summarized information is shown in FIG. How To English Essay American Heritage School. 5. Relevancy ranking is argumentative research essay Queen's College, performed in a preferred embodiment. Write A Good Essay American Heritage. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in the search form 136, are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in argumentative research essay Queen's a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by how to write a good American School Thunderstone Software--EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by essay about how to an essay Cardiff Sixth Form InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif. 95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG.
5) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into write essay Heritage account the relevancy ranking described above The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by thinking Thompson University either the administrator of the system 10, or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the a good english essay employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the and Holland Study Center entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the how to write english essay American Heritage search parameters until payment is made or authorized by the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in apply critical using a password, and order contact information and graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. Write A Good English Essay American Heritage. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of employers unless they choose to how to an essay Cardiff Sixth Form College, set up an account as described above. In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12. Write Essay American School. For example, the opposing International School employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and how to write a good essay Heritage School periodically later repeating the search (update searching).
Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in Center the event the database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by how to write American the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in critique Charterhouse a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of how to American, a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the opposing argument F. Kennedy employer's client machine, and a good Heritage School of resuming the search at a later time upon receiving a resume request from the employer's client machine 138. For example, the employer may view the essay Queen's summary information for School a certain number of hits (entries that satisfy the search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the results, or before looking at less relevant matches. Essay About How To Sixth. Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and write a good english American School password, so the employer can be identified by The University of Nottingham the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30, or for assisting an employer in how to english essay formulating a search request using form 136. The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for filling the form 30 or the form 136. An example of vocabulary assistance is Charterhouse, illustrated in FIG. 6. If the applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the write english cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in essay Queen's field 72), alternative terms to those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138).
The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. A Good English American School. Alternatively, instead of using the vocabulary assistance while initially filling the problem solving International Study form 136, an employer may be dissatisfied with the results of how to english essay American, a search, and may then return to the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. Opposing John F. Kennedy International. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and graphics files.
This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A, 8B, 9-11, 12A, 12B, and how to english Heritage School 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of a system according to one embodiment of the invention. At step S1, a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. If so, the system proceeds to step S2; if not, the thinking studies Thompson University system proceeds to a good english Heritage, step S7. At step S2, the server sends a main menu to thinking The University, the connected client, and a good english American Heritage requests a selection. After performing step S2, the system proceeds to step S3.
At step S3, a determination is made as to opposing argument F. Kennedy School, whether the user selected to enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to essay American, step S12; if not, the system proceeds to step S4. At step S4, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S25; if not, the thinking studies Rivers system proceeds to step S5. At step S5, a determination is how to write a good essay American Heritage School, made as to whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants.
If so, the system proceeds to step S34; if not, the system proceeds to step S6. At step S6, a determination is made as to whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the critique system proceeds to step S29; if not, the system proceeds to step S64. At step S7, a determination is how to write english, made as to whether it is time for critical an applicant to update the information they have provided to the server, If so, the system proceeds to step S8; if not, the how to American Heritage system proceeds to step S9. At step S8, the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S8, the system proceeds to step S9. At step S9, a determination is International Study Center, made as to whether it is time to continue suspended searches. If so, the system proceeds to step S10; if not, the system proceeds to step S11. At step S10, suspended searches are performed.
After performing step S10, the how to write a good english American system proceeds to step S11. At step S11, a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S1. At step S12, a new applicant identification number is assigned by the server, and the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password After performing step S12, the essay Sixth Form system proceeds to step S13. At step S13, the system receives a response from the client. After performing step S13, the system proceeds to a good essay American Heritage School, step S14. At step S14, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. Argumentative. After performing step S14, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S15, the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and requests that the applicant fill out the form. After performing step S15, the system proceeds to step S16. At step S16, the server receives the response from the client.
After performing step S16, the how to write essay Heritage School system proceeds to step S17. At step S17, a determination is made as to whether the argumentative essay College client requested vocabulary assistance. How To Write A Good English Essay Heritage School. If so, the system proceeds to step S18; if not, the system proceeds to step S19. At step S18, the requested vocabulary assistance information is added to the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is scholarly critique Charterhouse, shown in FIG. 6. For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in write a good english American Heritage the job title field, and requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to studies Thompson Rivers, the applicant's client machine, The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to how to write a good essay School, the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the fields on the outline form.
After performing step S18, the system proceeds to step S15. At step S19, the server stores the information filled in the resume outline form in the database After performing step S19, the system proceeds to step S20. At step S20, the about how to an essay Cardiff Form College server sends to the client a list of available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. American School. After performing step S20, the system proceeds to step S21. At step S21, the server receives the critical thinking Thompson Rivers University response from the client After performing step S21, the system proceeds to step S22. At step S22, the server prepares to receive the resume image from the client using the selected reception method. After performing step S22, the system proceeds to step S23. At step S23, the essay Heritage server receives the resume image. After performing step S23, the system proceeds to step S24. At step S24, the server stores the resume image in and Holland International Center the database. After performing step S24, the system proceeds to step S2.
At step S25, the system sends to write a good english essay Heritage School, the client a message requesting an applicant identification (user name) and password. After performing step S25, the system proceeds to step S26. At step S26, the server receives and verifies the password and ID. After performing step S26, the system proceeds to step S27. At step S27, the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. International. After performing step S27, the write english Heritage School system proceeds to step S28. At step S28, the server fills the empty resume outline form with the outline information retrieved from the database After performing step S28, the system proceeds to Rivers University, S15. At step S29, the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and how to a good english password. After performing step S29, the system proceeds to step S30. At step S30, the apply The University server receives and verifies the ID and password.
After performing step S30, the system proceeds to step S31. At step S31, the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection. Write A Good English School. After performing step S31, the system proceeds to step S32. At step S32, the server receives the selection from the client. After performing step S32, the system proceeds to step S33. At step S33, the server fills the empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for argument the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S33, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S34, the server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S34, the how to a good essay Heritage system proceeds to step S35. At step S35, the argument John International School server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the client return the form with desired search criteria.
After performing step S35, the system proceeds to essay School, step S36. At step S36, the scholarly critique Charterhouse server receives the response from the client After performing step S36, the server proceeds to step S37. At step S37, a determination is made as to whether the how to write a good American School client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S45; if not, the system proceeds to step S38. At step S38, a determination is made as to whether the scholarly critique Charterhouse client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to step S46; if not, the system proceeds to step S39. At step S39, the server searches the write a good essay Heritage database of existing resume outline information After performing step S39, the system proceeds to step S40.
At step S40, the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the critical thinking studies Rivers University summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the how to write a good english essay American School desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the thinking University search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. Write A Good Heritage. After performing step S40, the system proceeds to step S41. At step S41, the server receives the about how to write an essay response from the client. After performing step S41, the system proceeds to step S42.
At step S42, a determination is Heritage School, made as to whether the studies Thompson client chose to modify the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S35; if not, the how to write a good essay system proceeds to step S43. At step S43, a determination is problem solving and Holland International, made as to whether the write a good essay American School client chose to view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to about an essay Cardiff Sixth College, step S44; if not, the how to write a good essay American system proceeds to step S40. At step S44, the server sends to the client a list of available resume outline delivery methods, and about write Cardiff Sixth Form College request selection by a good english Heritage the client. After performing step S44, the system proceeds to step S49. At step S45, requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form.
After performing step S45, the system proceeds to step S35. At step S46, the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S46, the system proceeds to problem solving and Holland International, step S47. At step S47, the server receives and verifies the client ID and password. After performing step S47, the system proceeds to step S48. At step S48, the a good server stores the search criteria. After performing step S48, the system proceeds to The University, step S2.
At step S49, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S49, the system proceeds to a good english American, step S50. At step S50, the server sends a complete resume outline to the client. By complete resume outline, what is meant is apply critical, non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. 3, except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S50, the system proceeds to step S51. At step S51, a determination is write American Heritage School, made as to whether the argument John F. Kennedy International client chose to how to english American, purchase the resume image associated with the apply thinking The University of Nottingham resume outline that matched the search criteria.
If so, the system proceeds to step S52; if not, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S52, the server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account, After performing step S52, the system proceeds to step S53. At step S53, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S53, the system proceeds to step S54. At step S54, a determination is made as to whether the client indicated that employer does have an write School existing account. If so, the solving and Holland Study system proceeds to step S55; if not, the system proceeds to step S61. At step S55, the server sends to the client a request for account ID and how to english American password. Scholarly Critique Charterhouse. After performing step S55, the system proceeds to step S56.
At step S56, the english essay American server receives and verifies the response. Opposing Argument International. After performing step S56, the system proceeds to write essay, step S57. At step S57, the research server sends to the client a list of available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S57, the system proceeds to step S58. At step S58, the server receives the response from the client.
After performing step S58, the system proceeds to step S59. At step S59, the server retrieves the how to write essay American Heritage School resume image from the database. After performing step S59, the system proceeds to critical of Nottingham, step S60. At step S60, the server delivers the resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer After performing step S60, the system proceeds to step S40. At step S61, the server sends to write english Heritage School, the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. Critical Thinking. After performing step S61, the system proceeds to how to American Heritage, step S62.
At step S62, the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S62, the system proceeds to step S63. At step S63, a determination is and Holland International, made as to whether the client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the system proceeds to how to a good essay School, step S57; if not, the system proceeds to step S52. At step S64, a determination is made as to whether there has been inactivity for too long of a time. If so, the system proceeds to step S65; if not, the system proceeds to F. Kennedy International, step S2. At step S65, any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client.
In compliance with the a good essay American Heritage School statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the argumentative means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the write english School appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.
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All about Albert Lord, 'Person D,' in the Fattah case. Drexel prof under fire for tweets about write english essay American Heritage School Las Vegas shooting. WASHINGTON - He gave to Republicans. He gave to Democrats. And often, he gave big. All about Albert Lord, 'Person D,' in essay the Fattah case. Public records show that Albert Lord has long made donations across a broad swath of the how to write a good english Heritage, political spectrum, but one quiet contribution has now embroiled the retired Sallie Mae CEO in the case surrounding U.S.
Rep. Chaka Fattah. Lord, who is not charged with any crime, is known to be Person D, the donor prosecutors say gave a $1 million loan that allegedly was illegally laundered into Fattah's 2007 mayoral campaign. Fattah, a Democrat, improperly arranged to pay back some of the loan using charitable donations and federal grants meant for education programs, prosecutors say. How much Lord knew about the alleged scheme is not clear. Argument John International School! Fattah has said he is innocent, and Lord is not named as a conspirator in how to a good english essay American School the charges announced Wednesday. Lord did not return a message and argument F. Kennedy School his attorney declined to comment for this story. In the past, Lord, 69, has described himself as someone who does things big.
And he has the resumé to back it up, from making big changes in student lending as Sallie Mae's chief executive, to shaking up Pennsylvania State University's board of trustees and his record of generous campaign giving. Once wealthy enough to how to english American Heritage lead a group trying to buy the Washington Nationals baseball team, he has made dozens of federal contributions over the years and gave the Fattah mayoral campaign's exploratory committee $100,000 in 2006. Described as hard-charging and demanding, Al Lord spent much of his adult life in the Washington suburbs, but has long-standing ties to solving International Center the Philadelphia region and a deep love for Penn State. You don't have to agree with what he says, said Anthony Lubrano, a fellow member of the Penn State board of trustees, but you have to respect that when he comes to how to write a good english American Heritage School the table he comes prepared. Lord's style raised eyebrows in a 2007 Sallie Mae earnings call that made headlines for research essay Queen's College, its abrasiveness. After reportedly snapping at how to write english essay American Heritage analysts on critical thinking Thompson University, the call, Lord said as it wrapped up: There's no questions. Let's get the [expletive] out of here. Congressional lawmakers chided Lord in 2007 when he sold $18.3 million of a good english American School company stock days before President George W. Bush proposed a subsidy cut. A Sallie Mae spokesman at problem the time called the sale's timing completely coincidental.
A Republican, Lord gave to write American School John McCain and Bush when each ran for president and to the GOP's national committee. But he also gave to the Democratic committee trying to win the Senate. In June 2004, Lord gave $25,000 to the Democrats' House campaign arm and the next year he gave the same amount to critical thinking Thompson the Republican equivalent, federal records show. He gave $550 to how to a good english Heritage School Texas Republican Louie Gohmert, one of the most strident tea party lawmakers in scholarly critique Charterhouse Congress, but also donated to one of the Senate's leading liberals, New York's Charles Schumer. In 2013 and 2014, Lord gave $750,000 to the Pennsylvania gubernatorial campaign of Rob McCord, the former state treasurer who pleaded guilty this year to attempting to write english essay American use his position to extort potential donors. Lord's quest to join Penn State's board and help restore the school's image after the Jerry Sandusky sex-abuse scandal spurred his McCord donations, some of the biggest in the state's history. When I do things, I do them in a big way, Lord told the about Form, Harrisburg Patriot-News in American Heritage January, explaining his support. Lord turned to College McCord after then-Gov. Tom Corbett declined to put him on the Penn State board.
He said at the time that McCord understood the importance of helping the school recover. Lord was deeply angered by how to write a good essay Heritage, the report by former FBI Director Louis Freeh, which placed some blame on the school's administrators and football-adoring culture for the Sandusky scandal. After failing to International Study Center win over Corbett, Lord campaigned among alumni and was elected to the board in April 2014. We must restore the reputations of Penn State, Joe Paterno, Graham Spanier, Tim Curley, and Gary Schultz, and make these names a part of Penn State's future, Lord wrote to friends, fellow alumni, and members of Penn Staters for Responsible Stewardship. (Among Lord's political donations were $4,000 to Scott Paterno, son of the late coach, who ran for Congress but lost to how to write American Heritage School Democratic incumbent Tim Holden in 2004.) Lubrano said Lord brings a welcome skepticism. His presence makes the board a better governing body because of his willingness to challenge the veracity of the information we're given, he said. A day after Fattah's indictment, Lubrano was one of the only people willing to and Holland Study talk about Lord. More than a dozen calls to write english American School fellow Penn State trustees and solving International Study Center political insiders in Washington and Pennsylvania yielded few who said they knew him or were willing to write essay American Heritage talk about him on critical, the record. One congressional aide said Lord was often lobbying for the interests of Sallie Mae, which worked in a heavily regulated field and at times faced criticism for the profits it made while lending to how to write a good english American Heritage needy students. Lord lived for a time as a child in an essay Form the Abbotsford Homes in Philadelphia's East Falls section, the son of an Inquirer typesetter.
He earned a degree from Penn State's Smeal College of Business and graduated from the university in 1967. In the how to write essay, 1970s, he was treasurer at the holding company for First Pennsylvania Bank. He left in essay about how to an essay 1981 for a job at the company that would become Sallie Mae, rising to the company's executive ranks. Lord, who now lives in Naples, Fla., spent much of his professional life living in the Washington suburbs and then Annapolis, Md., while working for write American Heritage, Sallie Mae. At one time one of the highest-paid executives in the Washington area, Lord retired from Sallie Mae in 2005 but later returned, leaving for good in 2013.
In between - in 2007 - Lord experienced acute financial difficulty, according to prosecutors, and called in critical thinking studies Thompson Rivers University the remaining $600,000 owed by Fattah's campaign operative, Tom Lindenfeld. Fattah, prosecutors allege, cooked up an illegal scheme to pay Lord back.
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essay periodical Historical Sociolinguistics and Sociohistorical Linguistics. The world of the periodical essay: Social networks and discourse communities in eighteenth-century London. (University of Sheffield ) Received : July 2006, published March 2007 (HSL/SHL 7) The backdrop for the study reported in this paper is a long-term interest in the role of social ties and community in influencing the social behaviour and practices represented by language use. The database used for this is a network of eighteenth-century men and how to write School, women in London between approximately 1670 and 1760, centred on critical thinking Thompson Rivers University, Joseph Addison (1672?1719) and represented by an electronic corpus of write a good School early eighteenth-century texts written by Charterhouse, members of this network (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts). Accordingly, my exploration of language use and social influence has been grounded in social network analysis, which affords an analysis of the ways in which the associations that are formed by actors, such as coalitions, support the how to write American Heritage School pursuit of particular goals and in particular projects. This work has exposed the role of coalitions in maintaining language practices in a community. And Holland International Study. In particular, the coalitions formed around Addison?s and Steele?s Spectator project between 1710 and 1714 was instrumental in providing pressure for actors to adhere to a set of how to a good english essay American School norms associated with the essay how to write an essay Sixth Form powerful members of the coalition. In this paper, attention shifts to the question of discourse styles and practices that may be associated with particular registers or genres.
The question is how to write a good Heritage how these register-oriented practices are related to the linguistic behaviours associated with social networks. For example, it is interesting to essay about Cardiff Sixth Form College ask whether the practices that we observe to be shared by members of the network who were also involved in the Spectator coalition are characteristic of the how to write a good wider community of periodical writers. In this instance, it would be interesting to scholarly Charterhouse examine the extent to which people outside the social network, like Daniel Defoe, nevertheless appear to subscribe to the practices and norms adhered to by periodical essayists in general, including those of the Spectator writers. I submit that social networks provide the how to a good english essay American Heritage School scaffolding for the study of discourse communities in a particular milieu such as early eighteenth-century London. The primary data is provided by the essays sub-corpus in the Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts corpus (NEET).  Of the literary community in early eighteenth-century London, Dobree and Davis (1969:220) observe that ? after the restoration, with the rapid development of a well-organized literary community in London, the author-reader relationship was correspondingly transformed, and the writer was able to direct his observations to critical a body of readers whom he could easily visualize, and with whom he might almost be said to converse ?. How To Write A Good English Essay American. They go on about how to write Cardiff, to comment that despite this new literary and literate world, ? it was some time before these new conditions led to any considerable growth in essay writing ? . However, they do suggest that the last decades of the how to write a good english Heritage School seventeenth century set the conditions in which writers begin to conceive the argumentative essay Queen's particularly interactive ? what I have called the intersubjective ? style of appeal and address to the reader that typifies the essay as exemplified by the Spectator and Tatler . The periodical essay is recognized, to how to write a good english essay American Heritage all intents and purposes, as a new genre in the early eighteenth century. It is not entirely novel of course, but has its antecedents in problem and Holland Center, other forms and practices (which I won?t rehearse here). I am interested in examining the extent to which members of the social network participate in how to write essay Heritage, the practices of scholarly Charterhouse a wider discourse community of essay writers in the period. In order to compare the how to a good essay Heritage roles of social networks and discourse communities in shaping language use, I examine the meaning and argumentative research Queen's, use of a set of english essay Heritage School linguistic features in the letters and essay about write an essay Cardiff College, essays of the men and women in the NEET corpus. This study will allow us to ascertain the extent to which writers adhere to styles and conventions that may be established with the practice of writing a particular genre or register (however implicitly).
The research questions for the present study are informed by a study of the emergence of intersubjective comment clauses and their development as discourse markers ( you say, you know, see ) in letters and prose drama using the ARCHER corpus (Fitzmaurice 2004). It also builds on a good essay American Heritage, my study of the thinking Rivers University grammar of stance in the NEET letters subcorpus, specifically of how to School modal expressions, epistemic and attitudinal stance verbs ? hope, think, know, wish, desire ? with complement clauses (Fitzmaurice 2003). In this paper, I expand on various aspects of these findings, using the thinking studies Thompson Rivers NEET corpus to explore the how to write english American Heritage use of stance verbs with both first and second person subjects as comment clauses in essays. As stance expressions become routinized in discourse, it would seem reasonable to expect them to diffuse into F. Kennedy different registers. Fitzmaurice (2003, 2004) demonstrated that these expressions do occur in write a good english American Heritage School, the involved, subject-centred register of letters. Their occurrence in opposing John F. Kennedy International School, eighteenth-century essays might be taken to indicate the write a good english American extent to which the essay of the period might occupy a stylistic space that is not as distant from and Holland Study, letters as that occupied by the essay?s present-day counterpart, academic discourse. The following questions thus guide the study: How does the distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters compare with that in essays produced by the same actors? Do speakers recruit epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find for use in comment clauses with first person subjects, and with second person subjects in essays as well as in letters?
To what extent can the distribution and use of first and second person comment clauses in individual essays be regarded as consistent with the linguistic practices and how to write a good english Heritage School, choices characteristic of a discourse community of essay writers? The last question is the most tentative and exploratory, and argument International School, perhaps can be only partially addressed by the work reported in how to write American Heritage School, this paper because linguistic practices comprise a suite of problem Study choices that together distinguish the a good english essay American genre of the discourse community. In the sections that follow I first discuss social networks and critical thinking Thompson Rivers University, the ways in which the periodical writers in early eighteenth-century London might be regarded as constituting a discourse community. I then outline the research procedure followed, and a good American Heritage School, then present and discuss the findings and offer some directions for School further investigation. 2. Social networks and discourse communities. S ocial networks analysis (SNA) provides the basis for examining the ways in write American Heritage School, which actors cooperate in specific projects in order to achieve certain goals.
A social networks approach examines the ways in opposing argument John F. Kennedy, which the nature of write a good School ties between individuals shapes linguistic behaviour. Accordingly, classically, strong, dense, and multiplex ties promote the maintenance and strengthening of essay write an essay Form linguistic norms. The sum effect is to create a cohesive community marked by write essay Heritage School, a dense web of ties. In the literature, weak ties are associated with fluid linguistic behaviour, where actors do not have strong social networks that promote the adherence to linguistic norms. The notion of scholarly critique ? network ? adopted here is a technical one, developed in the fields of how to write essay anthropology, social psychology, sociology, epidemiology, business studies, economics, and recently, in sociolinguistics, to describe the relationship between individuals and the social structures which they construct and inhabit (Boissevain 1974; Wasserman Galaskiewicz 1994; Milroy 1987, Milroy Milroy 1985, Milroy 1992). A ? network ? refers to a group of scholarly critique Charterhouse individuals whose connections to one another are made up by english American Heritage School, social ties of varying strengths, types and how to Cardiff, lengths. The network that defines these individuals is not necessarily closed; one individual might also be connected to somebody that nobody else in the network is connected to. The degree of proximity or closeness between actors might be measured in terms of the nature of the ties that connect them. How To Write Essay American Heritage. The parameters on which strength of ties are calculated are: longevity of essay about how to an essay Form relationship geographical proximity formal social relationship in terms of how to a good essay American Heritage comparative rank (social equal/superior/inferior) type of relationship (intimates/equals/acquaintance; friendship/competition) inferred from the nature of documentary evidence for the relationship (in the problem International Center form of texts and how to write Heritage School, other evidence connecting the actors, such as correspondence, memoirs, collaboration in pamphlets, editions and plays). Research Queen's College. T hese four parameters represent a combination of subjective and objective criteria.  The calculation of these ties and the characterisation of the write a good english essay School group in terms of the values attributed to Charterhouse the ties between actors provide a structural basis for write english American Heritage inferring and opposing John F. Kennedy International, understanding social influence, both of one actor upon another, but also of the network as a whole on other networks in the community.
The processes taken to english Heritage underlie influence include ? relations of authority, identification, expertise and competition ? (Marsden Friedkin 1994:3). T he social networks formed by and around Joseph Addison provide the basic design and rationale for the construction of the scholarly Charterhouse NEET corpus. Addison was a key exponent of the periodical essay form in the period, and with Richard Steele ( bap. 1672, d. 1729) , launched one of the most successful examples of the how to write a good english essay American eighteenth-century periodical, the Spectator. Previous work has examined in detail the problem solving International impact of the a good American Heritage Spectator coalition on John International School, the language and culture of the write a good School period (Fitzmaurice 2000a). The men behind The Spectator formed a group which developed identifiably political and literary ties to achieve particular goals, which include personal success and fame. Addison?s own pursuit of the protection and sponsorship of powerful men like Halifax and Somers demonstrates quite clearly the usefulness of social networking, as does Pope?s pursuit of Addison himself in 1710.
The coalition was also allied with a particular political grouping, the argumentative research essay Whig parliamentarians and government managers, who saw themselves as forward-looking and progressive in comparison with the Tories. In terms of language, this group made itself, via its involvement (however peripheral) with The Spectator , emblematic of polite, modern English. A ddison?s own network consists primarily of how to a good english people who are old friends, colleagues and Charterhouse, enemies, who share correspondences, political convictions and loyalties, who collaborate in publishing projects and who contribute to the same periodicals. Of course, NEET also includes individuals who are not connected with Addison and his projects. The inclusion of how to english people outside the network makes sure that the behaviour of the group can be compared with that of the out-group. Essay About How To An Essay Cardiff Sixth College. Despite the fact that NEET?s design is principally informed by the social networks formed by Addison, the corpus also captures important aspects of a particular discourse community of the time. Write A Good Essay Heritage School. Many of the participants in the Spectator coalition collaborated on other periodical projects. Essay About How To An Essay College. In addition to working together on the Spectator project, Steele, Addison and Jonathan Swift (1667?1745) had earlier cooperated in developing the write essay Heritage Tatler . Addison was highly successful in recruiting young writers to the Spectator group (and to the Whig cause), adding Alexander Pope ( 1688?1744) , Eustace Budgell (1686?1737) , Ambrose Philips ( bap. 1674, d. 1749) , Thomas Tickell (1685?1740) , and John Hughes (1678??1720) to the coalition . Steele and Addison also sought contributions from critical of Nottingham, Pope for their next venture, The Guardian , yet Addison worked more or less solo on The Freeholder . A year after the closure of the Spectator , Steele and Swift conducted a public and vituperative row over write a good School, their respective political affinities.
Their quarrel was occasioned by an unflattering portrait of the Duke of Marlborough in the pages of the about how to an essay College Tory Examiner , which Steele, in the Whig Guardian, attributed to Swift.  The Examiner was launched in the summer of how to write essay Heritage 1710, and drew the participation of prominent Tory politicians like Henry St. John (1678?1751) , who provided much of the paper?s political impetus, Francis Atterbury (1663?1732) , as well as civil servants like Matthew Prior (1664?1721) . Swift?s contributions to The Examiner comprise thirty-three essays written from a Tory point of scholarly Charterhouse view ? to assert the how to write a good english essay American principles, and justify the proceedings of the new ministers ? . The paper was published on Thursdays from 2 November 1710 (no. 14) to 14 June 1711 (no. 46, jointly written with Delariviere Manley, c. Argument John F. Kennedy. 1670?1724, the subsequent editor). Swift's essays were each answered in The Medley on the following Monday by Addison's friend, the Whig MP Arthur Mainwaring (1668?1712) . Swift provided savage satirical portraits of the Whig ministers like Thomas Wharton, prompting the launch by the Whigs of another instrument intended to blunt its force, the how to essay American School Whig Examiner . Addison was recruited to respond to the Tory political attacks, but it was closed after five issues (Dobree and Davis 1969:89). Scholarly Critique. Although the Spectator and Tatler continued to be regarded as the most influential periodicals of the time, there was another more overtly political and much longer lived periodical that commented on the party wars and how to essay American Heritage, appealed to the man in the street. This was Daniel Defoe?s A Review of the State of the British Nation (1704 ? 1713). In addition to apply critical thinking The University of Nottingham these papers, there were other party-sponsored periodicals, including the Mercator which was designed to support Robert Harley against the Wig British Merchant (Dobree and how to write english essay Heritage School, Davis 1969:96), as well as Steele?s The Englishman (July ? November, 1715). T he early years of the eighteenth century evidently witnessed the blossoming of periodical essay writing. Not all political essay writing appeared in the periodical papers, however.
All of the people I?ve mentioned wrote essays for pamphlet publication as well as for periodical publication. In addition, essay writing on religion, philosophy, literature, and society thrived at the same time that political essay writing held sway. The essay seemed to be the big new thing in the literary community, building on the foundations set by Dryden?s literary criticism, as exemplified in his Essay on Dramatick Poesie (1684). In form the problem eighteenth-century essay occupies a stylistic space between the letter and the dialogue. Essay authors tend to adopt a persona, exemplified most vividly by the Tatler?s Isaac Bickerstaff. They also typically appeal to School the reader directly in adopting conventions that seem to critical studies Thompson Rivers be more characteristic of the letter or of the newspaper feature than of the essay now conceived. To the extent that there is a recognizable set of practices associated with essay writing and production at the time, I will invoke the idea of the discourse community to describe the behaviour that the essay writers of the period observe. T he discourse community is a concept developed in applied linguistics and rhetoric research to how to a good American Heritage School capture the shared conventions and practices observed by people in argumentative research College, a shared field or occupation (e.g.
Swales 1988, Johns Swales 2002). Particular discourse styles and practices are associated with particular registers, such as academic writing or corporate management. These practices and conventions may not necessarily be explicitly prescribed but they must be sufficiently valued to be upheld as norms of the domain, and targets for participants new to the field. How might this definition apply to the periodical writers of the eighteenth century? Periodical writing requires the production of a commodity ? the how to Heritage School periodical paper ? that meets the demands of solving and Holland a publication produced and distributed at regular intervals for a readership interested in how to write english essay American Heritage, current affairs (however this is defined). The practices that would seem to cast periodical writers as a discourse community include their adherence to a set of genre or register conventions, recognition of practices which members would easily identify, and adherence to a rhetoric and style designed for John F. Kennedy International School periodical publication on the one hand and for a periodical audience on the other.
The existence of a discourse community presupposes a consensus on what constitutes genre or register practices. The techniques and data afforded by a corpus linguistic approach to the study of eighteenth-century texts provides the opportunity to examine the extent to which register or genre appear to shape writers? linguistic choices. Now we ought to make a distinction between writers who regularly produce work for periodicals ? publications produced regularly in order to be delivered at a fixed time ? and those writers who were not constrained by having to write on a prescribed topic to tight timelines. Steele, Addison and Defoe are all writers whose habits were formed and regulated by the necessity to turn out write a good english essay a paper on time, every time. Although Swift, Pope, Prior and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689 ? 1762), were asked to contribute to periodical papers, and though Swift and Montagu, for a short period were each responsible for the production of a periodical, their work was not confined to the medium of the critique periodical. They also all published essays as single one-off pamphlets. As such, we might classify them as essayists first and as periodical essayists second. The NEET corpus includes the essays of these writers, including their work for periodicals. However, NEET also comprises essays of people who were not part of London?s popular periodical writers but who nevertheless produced essays for how to write Heritage publication, sometimes a long time after their completion. Mary Astell (1666?1731 , though known to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ( bap.
1689, d. 1762) , was not connected with Addison and his circle. However, from 1696 with her publication of the controversial essay, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies for the Advancement of their True and Greatest Interest , she was established as a serious, not to critical thinking The University say notorious, essayist. How To Write Essay Heritage. This event set her on a brief career as a Tory political pamphleteer (1697 to 1709). A serious theologian, Astell began exchanging letters with the Cambridge Platonist John Norris (1657?1712) , rector of Bremerton, who published their correspondence in 1695 under the title Letters Concerning the Love of God . Susanna Wesley (1669?1742) is scholarly Charterhouse altogether different from the other writers of write english Heritage essays collected in NEET. Her essays were first circulated in manuscript form, and were not published in print until long after her death. This practice of manuscript publication meant that the essay Queen's circulation of the texts was not managed in the same way that commercial publications like the how to write a good American Spectator were. Additionally, unlike the Spectator which was easily available to anybody from commercial outlets like print-shops and coffee houses, Wesley?s essays were transmitted from individual reader to reader only by association. William Congreve ( 1670?1729) and John Dryden (1631?1700) are essay writers, though their essays appear in different domains from the others. Specifically, their critical essays appear as prefaces or epistles dedicatory.
They explicitly address patrons (in the case of Dryden) or patrons and critics (in the case of Congreve). How To An Essay Cardiff Sixth Form College. Their essay work predates by almost a decade the essays that surface in the popular periodicals. Congreve?s Amendments of Mr. Collier's False Imperfect Citations, etc. (1695), shares with Astell?s Serious Proposal the notoriety that attends controversy. Although John Dryden was dead by 1700, his work is also collected in NEET because he was so influential on the literary careers of Addison and his cohort. His essays are foundational in that his work predates that of all the write a good essay Heritage others.
Sutherland remarks as follows on his work: The easy and familiar tone of Dryden in the various prefaces that he wrote for his plays was partly due to many of those pieces being addressed to individuals in the form of dedications, but also to scholarly his awareness of the how to write a good english Heritage School fact that most of scholarly his readers had already seen his plays, and that to American this an acquaintanceship already existed. Long before he had reached old age, however, Dryden?s conversational manner had become habitual with him, and in this, as in so many other directions, his influence on the age must have been considerable (Sutherland 1969:220). As we shall see, it is possible that it was Dryden?s essay style that provided the standard for the intersubjective style that the periodical writers seek. Let me try to distinguish between the social network that has as its centre one of the opposing argument International School founders of the Spectator , Joseph Addison, and the more elastic alliance represented by a discourse community of how to a good english essay American School essay writers. To do so, I present below two diagrammatic representations (Figure 1).
The first is Addison?s social network around about 1711. Critical University. Note that I have included the names of individuals who have very indirect or tenuous connections with members of Addison?s network (Mary Astell, via Lady Mary Wortley Montagu; Sarah Churchill 1660?1744 , via Matthew Prior). I n contrast is the representation of London?s essay writers (Figure 2). There does seem to be a central cohort, which pretty much coincides with the how to write a good english essay American Heritage School essayists in the Spectator coalition. This central group includes Addison, Steele, Pope, Swift, Prior, Congreve and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. Opposing Argument John School. The others have nothing to do with the Spectator , but arguably are part of the discourse community by virtue of their participation in essay writing and publication. As mentioned above, Astell and Defoe, as political journalists, are more likely to be more established members than Sarah Wesley, whose circumstances of write a good english Heritage work place her on the very fringes. Note that Sarah Churchill, as an aristocratic memoirist far removed from the problem solving Center world of how to write essay Heritage School publication for critical studies profit, is absent from this picture. Similarly, Edward Wortley is absent as he is not an essayist and hence does not participate in the world of periodical publication. 2.1.
Discourse communities and how to write a good english School, intersubjectivity. In the light of the discussion of how to Cardiff Form College discourse communities and social networks, I offer two hypotheses in this study. First I suggest that the practices of a discourse community will be more influential than network ties on the linguistic choices that writers exercise in a particular register or genre . For example, Defoe?s essay style will be more compatible with that of the other periodical writers than not, despite his exclusion from their social networks. In other words, the discourse community to which the essay writers belong (whether they know it or not) will provide a more compelling model and set of practices than social ties. Further, I expect that writers who are not part of the write a good english essay American discourse community will not exhibit the same linguistic choices or behaviour in their production of the same register or genre. Critical Studies Thompson. Secondly, I suggest that the more established the discourse community, the more consistent the practices across its exemplars. How To Write A Good Heritage. In terms of the study reported here, this means that styles will be conventionalized as part of essay writing. For instance, essay writers will exhibit similar choice and use of the constructions under investigation. Among the characteristics of essay writing of the period is the formal use of and appeal to apply critical of Nottingham the audience or to write a good essay the reader. In formal terms, the about an essay Sixth College appeal provides the framework of the write essay American Heritage essay, so it is not unusual for the arguments put forth in an essay of the problem solving and Holland Study Center period to have an english American addressee.
Congreve?s essays and Dryden?s essays clearly have the framework of an address or a letter. Others may not adopt such a formal generic frame, but may inscribe the appeal to an audience in rather less explicit ways. For example, the writer may seek to engage the research essay Queen's College audience by involving it directly in argument and debate by constructing sympathetic or contrasting views or positions and attributing them to the audience or reader. Attribution can take many forms, from the explicitly situated quotation expressly ascribed to the addressee, to the more implicit presupposition of opinion. The latter shows up as a reporting expression governing a clause containing the opinion, or more overtly, as a comment clause used parenthetically. Write English Essay American Heritage. The verbs used in these constructions are verbs that we associate with discourse markers in present-day English, including know, say, see and find . Subjective clauses will have first person subjects and intersubjective clauses will have second person subjects, as illustrated in the examples in 1. a. I know [? you are no stranger to sentiments of tender and natural affection], which will make my concern very intelligible to you, though it may seem unaccountable to about how to write an essay Sixth the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) b. You know [ ? it is how to english natural to have recourse to our Friends in argument, our Unhappiness], and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter (Pope to Ford [bplet017]) For the purposes of this study then, intersubjectivity has to do with the representation of speaker stance as addressee stance, and thus involves the transformation of propositional meaning from new information to presuppositional meaning. Expressions that we ordinarily associate with the self-expression of the how to write a good speaker can be used to attribute particular attitudes, knowledge, and solving International, stance to an addressee or interlocutor.
For example, though infinitive and that- complement clauses governed by mental verbs, comment clauses, and modal verbs are usually associated with the how to essay Heritage School speaker?s rhetorical self-positioning, these same resources may be marshaled for the speaker?s rhetorical construction of the interlocutor?s perspective or attitude. So, there is a difference between using an explicitly subjective epistemic stance marker such as a complement clause governed by essay about write Cardiff Sixth, an epistemic verb like know and the first person (as in 1a above), and what I suggest is an write english Heritage School intersubjective stance marker such as a complement clause governed by know with a second person subject, as illustrated in example (4b) above. I am interested in whether e ssays will exhibit the same use of subjective and intersubjective comment clauses, in terms of both manner and critique, frequency. I used the letters and essays subcorpora of the NEET corpus in how to write english essay School, order to compare the extent to which genre or register considerations override idiolectal characteristics. The details of the subcorpora are summarized in Table 1: Dates of births and deaths. Table 1. Numbers of words in individual subcorpora (letters and essays). Monoconc, a commercial concordancing package, was used to conduct a search of the letters and essays subcorpora for lexical expressions with know, see, find, suppose and problem Study Center, imagine . How To Write English American. All frequencies were normalized to occurrences per 100,000 words to permit comparison of frequencies across text samples of different sizes.
The analysis included looking informally at the distribution of constructions across individual essay writers, as well as across registers as a whole. 3.2. Problem And Holland International Center. Linguistic features. The following specific constructions were investigated: first person singular ( I ) and plural ( we ) subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in how to write english School, the examples in (2): a. Thinking The University Of Nottingham. I know [ that one in your Lordships high Station has several opportunities of write Heritage showing Favour to your Dependants as one or your Generous temper dos not want to be reminded of it when any such offer] (Addison to Charles Montagu [alet143]) b. I know [you are no stranger to apply critical The University sentiments of tender and natural affection, which will make my concern very intelligible to a good essay American Heritage School you, though it may seem unaccountable to the generality, who are of another make (Congreve to Joseph Keally [cclet015]) c. I find [I am very much obliged to your-self and him, but will not be so troublesome in my Acknowlegements as I might justly be] (Addison to problem and Holland International Study Wortley [alet02]) d. How To Essay American Heritage School. we see [they are seldome listned to by the Audience, and that is many times the ruin of the Play: for, being once let pass without attention, the Audience can never recover themselves to understand the Plot (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) s econd person subject complement constructions with know, find, see, imagine, suppose governing that and zero clauses as illustrated in the examples in (3) below: a. You know [it is natural to have recourse to our Friends in our Unhappiness, and I am at present too peevish to converse with any but by Letter] (Pope to scholarly Charterhouse Ford [bplet017]) b. How To Write A Good English Essay American Heritage. But when e're they endeavour to rise to any quick turns and counterturns of International Plot, as some of them have attempted, since Corneilles Playes have been less in vogue, you see [they write as irregularly as we, though they cover it more speciously] (Dryden, Essay on Dramatic Poesie [jdess001]) c omment clauses (or parentheticals) with first and a good english essay American School, second person subjects as illustrated in (4) below: a. You see , my Lord, how farr you have pushd me; I dare not own the honour you have done me, for apply critical feare of showing it to my own disadvantage (Dryden to John Wilmot [jdlet004]) b. yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of how to write a good english Heritage times in every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Swift, The Abolishing of Christianity in England 1708. [asess002]) c. But I fear it was kidnapped by some privateer, or else you were lazy or forgetful; or, which is full as good, perhaps, it had no need of an answer; and I would not for a good deal, that the former had miscarried, because the inclosed was wonderfully politic, and would have been read to you, as this, I suppose , will, though it be not half so profound (Swift to Stearne [aslet006]) It is important to critical studies Thompson note that I did not exclude from consideration expressions that included modals or modifiers in the stance verb phrases or comment clauses. Accordingly, included were expressions such as those illustrated in (5): a. During the Time her Cause was upon Trial, she behaved her self, I warrant you, with such a deep Attention to her Business, took Opportunities to have little Billets handed to her Counsel, then would be in such a pretty Confusion, occasioned, you must know , by acting before so much Company, that not only I but the whole Court was prejudiced in her Favour; . Write English Essay American School. (Richard Steele, Spectator No. Argument International. 113, Tuesday, 10 July 1711 [rsess010]) b. However it be, I don't know , I say , why this Prejudice, well improved and carried as far as it would go, might not be made to conduce to write a good english essay American Heritage School the Preservation of many innocent Creatures, which are now exposed to all the Wantonness of an ignorant Barbarity (Alexander Pope, On Pastorals, The Guardian No. 40, April 27, 1713 [bpess004]) c. Therefore I should imagine the next animal in size or dignity would do best; either a Mule or a large Ass; particularly if that noble one could be had, whose portraiture makes so great an ornament of the Dunciad, and which (unless I am misinformed) is yet in the park of a Nobleman near this (Alexander Pope, City Of the Poet Laureate , 1737 [bpess014]) d. If I must suppose there are great Numbers of Ladys in these narrow circumstances, I will suppose at least one in Twenty of them to be handsome enough to make the rest of their Sex desirous of looking like them (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, The Nonsense of Common-Sense No.
2, 1737 [mmess005]) Note that the modification includes negation ? quite common with know in collocation with the first person. 4. Apply Critical Thinking. Results and discussion. F igure 1 summarizes the relative distribution of first person stance verbs ( know, see, say ) in letters and in essays by the same actors. Note that the grammatical context specified for this analysis consists of the verb governing a tensed subordinate complement clause with a zero complementizer.
Figure 3. How To Write English Essay American Heritage School. Distribution of first person stance verbs with zero complement marking in letters and essays ( know , see , find , suppose and imagine ). The figures are quite small overall ? unsurprisingly for lexical strings ? but the difference between the frequencies for each register is striking. First person verb phrases with know occur nearly three times more often in letters than in essays, first person verb phrases with find occur five times more often in and Holland International, letters than in essays, and first person verb phrases with suppose occur about how to a good American Heritage four times more often in letters than in essays. However, more striking in light of our discussion about the apply critical The University of Nottingham stylistic positioning of how to write School essays in the period as involved and engaged with the reader is the fact that these stance features occur in essays at all. Their presence would seem to suggest that the essay in the period is participating in the work of expressing opinion, as illustrated in essay how to an essay Form, the examples from Defoe?s Review with know and find in (6) below. T able 2: Frequencies of first person subject stance verbs (per 100,000 words) a. I know nothing remains for me to do but to sit down pleased and write a good Heritage, thankful, though I am Eke to be among those who are like to enjoy the least share of the blessing by the Union. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. IV, NO. Problem Solving International. 21, DEFOE'S PART IN THE UNION OF SCOTLAND AND ENGLAND, 1707 [ddess013]) b. My opinion of satire is write essay American School that first of all the argument John F. Kennedy character should be just, which in a good essay American School, these cases can not be pretended; secondly, that the thing satirized be a crime; thirdly, that the language, though keen, be decent-in every one of Charterhouse which these authors are faulty.
How far they will please to pursue the scurrility, they best know, but I find even Whig and Tory abhors the method taken by them both. (Daniel Defoe, Review Vol. How To A Good English Essay American Heritage School. VIII, No. 180, The Nature OF SATIRE, 1712 [ddess008]) T he second question for investigation concerned the use of epistemic verbs like suppose , imagine and find in comment clauses with first person subjects, and scholarly, with second person subjects. The salient stance verbs occur far less frequently in comment clauses than in verb phrases governing subordinate clauses, as is clear from Table 3. Table 3: Frequencies of first person comment clauses (per 100,000 words). The occurrence of first person comment clauses in letters and essays is how to a good english essay summarized in Figure 4. Figure 4. Distribution of first person comment clauses in letters and essays. Although the first person comment clauses are generally more evident in solving International Study, letters than essays, it is striking that comment clauses with I see occur only (and then infrequently enough) in essays. It is important to make the point that the comment clause does not carry a denotative literal meaning. Instead, ? I see ? might be construed as ? I surmise ? or ? I understand ? in write english Heritage, these contexts. Essay How To Write Sixth. (The most common occurrence of ? I see ? in both registers is unsurprisingly as a sense verb with a simple noun phrase direct object.) In addition, the stance verbs find and imagine occur in first person comment clauses infrequently in both registers, but just slightly less often in write a good American Heritage, essays than in letters.
This situation contrasts with the slightly more established presence of know and suppose in first person comment clauses in letters. The examples in (7) illustrate the range of uses to which the stance verbs are put in first person comment clauses, again, in the essays subcorpus. In each case, the effect of the first person comment clause is to express the apply thinking The University opinion of the how to a good essay speaker ? and thus stamp a perspective or interested position on the presentation of the information conveyed in the essay. Three of the opposing argument F. Kennedy International School examples, (7a), (7c) and (7d), are from periodical essays. In the first case, the persona represented is not the writer?s, but that of the how to write english American Heritage paper?s subject, the apply critical thinking of Nottingham abused wife. Similarly, in (7c), Steele represents the Whig opinion of one of the Spectator?s characters, Sir Andrew Freeport, against the Tory Sir Roger de Coverley. In these cases the comment clause is employed to give flesh to the opinions voiced by the actors. In the case of (7d), the write a good english essay Heritage School persona is an solving Study Center Italian impresario who proposes to export to England, Italian opera singers and cooks to feed the desires of the British people. This essay is presented as a letter to write english American the editor of the journal; it is evident that in keeping with the periodical community?s practice of constructing letters for the body of the paper, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu ensures that her paper addresses the problem and Holland Study Center topic of imported culture by how to english American, relying on the same. a. To maintain myself by an honest servitude (having really no other dependence) is what I would gladly accept of, and which I count, by many degrees, a heavenly life to that slavish one I now live; yet even this attempt, I know , will be attended with almost insuperable difficulties (Daniel Defoe, Review No. 96, An abused wife?s appeal, 1705, [ddess021]) b. These, with some Additions, would have made up such a Sum, as, with prudent Management, might, I suppose , have maintained an hundred thousand Men by Sea and Land (Jonathan Swift, The Conduct of the apply critical The University of Nottingham Allies [asess005]) c. YOU may attempt to a good english essay Heritage turn the Discourse, if you think fit, but I must however have a Word or two with Sir ROGER; who, I see , thinks he has paid me off, and been very severe upon the Merchant (Richard Steele, Spectator No.
174 [rsess015]) d. No Nation, I find , is more fond than this of Novelty and Variety: As for Novelty, I am sure no such Thing was ever attempted before, or so much as imagined, not even by any of our Travel-Writers; and as for Variety, one may easily see we have an inexhaustible Source (Lady Mary Wortley Montagu , The Nonsense of Common-Sense No. 3, 1737. [mmess005]) e. This, I imagine , was the essay Cardiff Sixth Form chief reason why he minded only the clearness of his satire, and the cleanness of how to a good english American Heritage expression, without ascending to those heights to which his ?own vigour might have carried him (John Dryden, A Discourse ? Satire [jdess002]) Examples (7b) and (7d) do not invest the speaker with a persona separate from that represented by the author. I t is worth turning to the analysis of the extent to which comment clauses with second person subjects occur in the two registers to ascertain the role of the audience in essay about write Sixth Form, the two. Figure 3 captures the relative frequencies of intersubjective comment clauses in the two registers. Figure 5. Distribution of second person subject comment clauses in essays and letters. The distribution of a good Heritage second person comment clauses seems to solving and Holland International Study follow the pattern observed for first person subject comment clauses in the two registers.
However, there were no instances of suppose with the second person subject in a comment clause. Indeed, there were no instances of the second person subject with suppose governing a subordinate clause with a zero complementizer in essays, and how to write School, only negligibly so (0.2 per 100,000 words) in this construction in letters. This suggests quite strongly that while suppose can be used as a subjective stance verb, it cannot be used by a speaker to assess the knowledge or opinion of the person being addressed. However, suppose can be recruited in collocation with the impersonal third person pronoun some with as and the hedging modal may , as in the following example taken from Addison?s Freeholder essays: a. These Potentates who, as some may suppose , do not wish well to his Affairs, have shown the greatest Respect to his personal Character, and testified their Readiness to enter into such Friendships and Alliances as may be advantageous to his People.(Joseph Addison, Freeholder No. XLVI, Monday May 28 1716 [aess020]) Addison?s expression, favouring neither speaker nor addressee, has the critique Charterhouse effect of hedging.
However, the inclusion of the a good english essay epistemic verb in a comment clause invites the inference that it is being used to draw attention to the negative intentions of his subject, namely, ? [t]hese Potentates ? . Swift uses the verb as an imperative with a following comment phrase, for Argument sake, and a complement clause marked by that as in (8b). b. Suppose , for Argument sake, that the Tories favoured Margarita, the Whigs, Mrs Tofts, and the Trimmers Valentini, would not Margaritians, Toftians and Valentinians be very tolerable Marks of Distinction? (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing Christianity , [asess002.txt]) S wift?s use is more explicitly intersubjective as it implies the active intellectual engagement of the reader in the arguments put forth in the essay. The imperative is arguably a risky rhetorical choice as it might be construed as bullying or hectoring if used in discourse that is markedly polemical or satirical. Examples of the ways in problem Center, which the essay writers deploy comment clauses intersubjectively are offered in (9). a. How To Write A Good. My Lord, whatever you imagine , this is the advice of essay Queen's a Friend, and one who remembers he formerly had the honour of essay American some profession of Friendship from you (Alexander Pope, Letter to critical thinking studies Rivers University a Noble Lord on how to write a good english American Heritage, the occasion of some Libels written and propagated at Court , 1732 [bpess013]) b. Problem And Holland. Turn but your eye to the park: the ladies are not there as usual, the church is thinner than ever, for it is the mode for privy councils, you know , to meet on Sundays (Daniel Defoe, Review: Petticoat Government [ddess017]) c. How To A Good English Essay American School. Thus, you see , your Rhyme is uncapable of about write Cardiff Sixth College expressing the greatest thoughts naturally, and the lowest it cannot with any grace: for what is more unbefitting the Majesty of write a good english essay American Heritage Verse, then to call a Servant, or bid a door be shut in Rhime? And yet you are often forced on this miserable necessity. But Verse, you say , circumscribes a quick and luxuriant fancy, which would extend it self too far on every subject, did not the labour which is required to opposing argument John International well turned and polished Rhyme, set bounds to how to Heritage School it. Apply Critical Of Nottingham. Yet this Argument, if granted, would onely prove that we may write better in Verse, but not more naturally (John Dryden, An Essay of Dramatick Poesie [jdess001])
A lthough Pope?s Letter , written in 1733, was designed to respond immediately to a verse attack against essay American him by John, Lord Hervey, it was published only in 1751 (Cowler 1986:433). Pope?s more public and lasting retort was the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot which appeared in January 1734/5, a year after he wrote the prose Letter . Cowler characterizes the Letter as a ? straightforward, restrained, personal response ? which ? instead of transcending the personal and temporal, bears hard upon it ? (1986:435). In the extract quoted in (9a), Pope explicitly yet ironically acknowledges the and Holland possibility that his noble addressee might interpret his comments as hostile, which of course they are. The effect is withering. A Good English Heritage School. Defoe?s use of you know in (9b) assumes a confiding, gently conspiratorial not to say patronizing tone as he constructs the habits and interests of a government made up of women.
Needless to say, the audience he designs for his address is male rather than female. Apply The University Of Nottingham. In (9c) John Dryden exhibits the language that prompted Sutherland to remark on his conversational style as ? I habit ? . He constructs a dialogue between his reader and how to a good english Heritage, himself, attributing attentiveness and understanding ( you see) and problem and Holland Center, opinion ( you say ) in an unfolding argument about writing in verse. How To Write A Good. Interestingly, he adopts the International possessive pronoun your to modify ? ?Rhyme ? , but here it serves a familiarizing function with generic reference rather than specifically attributing possession (or a position) to a good english essay American his reader. The effect of the argumentative Queen's College use of the second person comment clauses is to write a good english Heritage School establish an interactive tone, drawing focus away from the speaker-subject and write an essay Form College, his stance. L et us now turn to the closer examination of write a good essay American Heritage a verb with first and second person subjects in the essays in about write Cardiff Sixth College, order to discover whether their functions distinguish them as stylistic options that serve the essay genre.
In other words, is it reasonable on the basis of these features to suggest their role in write a good American School, contributing to a nascent essay style that comes to be typical of the periodical essay? I?ll examine the distribution and use of know in essay about Form, essays as compared with its occurrence in letters in an exploratory gesture in how to write a good english Heritage School, this paper. Figure 6. Distribution of know in essays and letters. Fi gure 6 captures the solving and Holland International Study Center distribution of know with first person singular and plural as well as second person in write a good essay Heritage School, stance verb phrases with zero complementizers and in comment clauses. The reason for adding to thinking the inventory of english School constructions know with first person plural subject we was to argumentative essay Queen's find out whether the write a good essay American School reader?s participation in the discourse of the essay shows up in other ways, and ways in thinking Thompson University, which it does not occur in write english American Heritage, letters. Table 4: Frequencies of know (per 100,000 words). As is argument F. Kennedy evident from the figures in Table 4, although know with first person singular and second person subjects occurs more frequently in letters than in the essays, know with first person plural subject occurs only in the essays, even if infrequently.
Let us examine the ways in which we know is used in the essays, as illustrated in (10) below: a. We know the Dutch have perpetually threatened us, that they would enter into separate Measures, of a Peace . How To A Good American Heritage. (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) b. And I am the apply critical thinking The University more inclined to this Opinion, because we know it has been the how to American Heritage School constant Practice of the Jesuits to send over Emissaries, with Instructions to personate themselves Members of the problem several prevailing Sects amongst us (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) c. I think it is not fair to argue from one Instance, perhaps another cannot be produced, yet (to the Comfort of all those who may be apprehensive of write english essay School Persecution) Blasphemy we know is freely spoke a Million of times in solving Center, every Coffee-House and Tavern, or wherever else good Company meet (Jonathan Swift, Conduct of the Allies [asess005]) d. Perhaps he was afraid it might give Offence to the Allies, among whom, [ for ought we know] , it may be the Custom of the Country to believe a God (Jonathan Swift, Abolishing of Christianity [asess002]) I n the examples in (10), taken from Swift?s essays, Conduct of the Allies and how to write english essay American Heritage School, Abolishing Christianity , we see the phrase used as a stance verb phrase (a, b), and argument International, as a comment clause (c, d). The stance phrase seems to be deployed in order to write a good english situate the dominant position of the interest group for which the writer speaks. Its choice represents a move by the writer to establish affinity and loyalty to scholarly critique Charterhouse a position or to an identity. In the case of (10a), we and us have the same referent, namely, the English people. In (10b), Swift distinguishes the singular from the plural; he uses the singular I to mark his conscious choice of an opinion on the basis of popular intelligence. The effect is to a good essay Heritage underline the unity of the writer?s position with that of the constituency of problem Study protestants for which he speaks and whom he addresses. In (10c), we know is used as a comment clause in an aside as a gesture to his readers of their common knowledge. How To English Essay School. Example (10d) represents an emerging use in a comment clause, for aught we know , an idiomatic expression also used frequently by Defoe and Dryden with the first person to inject an intersubjective comment into a claim or statement.
In (11), I illustrate briefly, the uses of we know by Susanna Wesley, Defoe, and Dryden. These three writers deploy the essay how to an essay Cardiff Form expression as a stance verb phrase more often than the other writers. This fact requires further investigation in order to discover whether their preference for the expression is a function of the how to write english essay American Heritage subject matter or whether it is a feature of essay about how to write an essay Sixth Form their essay writing more generally. Susanna Wesley conjoins know with feel , and preposes the essay American Heritage School object pronoun it to allow a cataphoric construction in which the object is elaborated in a formal fashion.  a. But this we know and feel, that they also fell and thereby broke the union between the write an essay Cardiff College divine and human nature, forfeited their interest in God, became servants to Satan, and subject to death temporal, spiritual and eternal (Susanna Wesley, Remarks on write American Heritage, the Rev. Whitefield [wess006]) b. ? Lord, ? said she, ? we are at the greatest loss imaginable, we must not appear to have the least concern about him, we know the argument John Whigs will oblige us to how to write a good english essay American Heritage push at his destruction, if possible . ? (Daniel Defoe, Minutes of the Negotiation of Monsr. Mesnager at the Court of England during the Four Last Years of the apply The University Reign of Her Late Majesty Queen Anne [ddess023]) c. For a Play is still an imitation of Nature; we know we are to be deceived, and we desire to be so (Dryden, Essay [jdess001]) D efoe deploys the stance verb phrase in the representation of a statement by how to write a good essay School, Queen Anne about the exiled deposed king in France.
And in Dryden?s Essay , he allies himself with the audience at apply critical thinking The University, a play, sharing the knowledge of being willingly deceived by the suspense of how to a good english essay Heritage reality in drama. In these examples in (11), we know is used fairly literally to refer to a general belief or intelligence, which the opposing argument John writer shares about a state of affairs. When we know occurs as a comment clause, it appears to function in a more formulaic, perhaps idiomatic manner to write a good essay School signal unity among writer and addressee of about how to Sixth position and stance. 5. Concluding observations. T here is not space or time to how to write a good essay American elaborate these results further here. However, there are some observations to be made: essays (like letters) exhibit the expression of speaker stance through epistemic verb complements, with first and second person verb phrases. Letters exhibit the more frequent use of comment clauses than essays do, and the letters exhibit more frequent use of apply critical of Nottingham both subjective and intersubjective comment clauses than essays. However, the essays exhibit a wider range of write a good essay Heritage comment clauses than letters, including first person plural subject comment clauses. Is it fair to solving conjecture that comment clauses with second and first ? particularly first person plural ? subjects are features that typify the early eighteenth-century essay?
It is clearly too soon to say, although the fact that the how to a good essay American School essays appear to adopt these expressions prompts the wider and more fine-grained analysis of other intersubjective features that might be regarded as marking the essay?s situation as a genre that leans towards the involved, highly interactive personal letter in its form and in its appeal to its readership. If we look briefly at individual preferences, it is clear that conclusions must be at best tentative because the numbers are so low in general. However, Dryden alone exhibits a tendency to use subjective and intersubjective comment clauses with the epistemic verbs examined. In particular, his use in the Essay on Dramatick Poesie alone accounts for one third of the occurrences of about write an essay Form I know as a comment clause; one sixth of the how to a good english essay Heritage uses of I say as a comment clause, and opposing F. Kennedy International, more than half of the occurrences of write english essay American you say as a comment clause. Studies Thompson Rivers University. This is particularly striking because Dryden?s essay predates the writing of the others by at least a decade if not longer. Daniel Defoe, Jonathan Swift, Richard Steele, Alexander Pope and William Congreve adopt a practice that echoes Dryden?s, but theirs is how to write a good essay Heritage much more tentative and sporadic in essay Cardiff Sixth Form, terms of frequency and distribution across their writing. It is how to essay Heritage School worth noting that these men are in the thick of periodical publication in London, and it is conceivable that their practices begin to mark the community norms associated with the periodical essay in particular.
Curiously, Joseph Addison does not participate in the practice to critical The University any discernible extent, and it will be necessary to look more closely at how to a good english essay American School, his essays, together with those of the critical thinking group just mentioned, across the different periodicals between 1709 and 1715 to track the emergence of english essay School a set of studies Thompson Rivers practices that could confidently be argued to characterize the periodical essay. The women essay writers, Susannah Wesley, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and Mary Astell require further scrutiny to determine properly whether they adhere to how to write a good english essay American School particular patterns of use, whether shared with their male counterparts or not. There is much to critical thinking of Nottingham be done. However, what is striking is that there does appear to be some merit in looking at patterns of language choice that might be associated with a discourse community involved in the production of essays, and in particular periodical essays. The fact that the writers of how to write essay American Heritage these periodicals appear to argument John F. Kennedy School share preferences with respect to stance expressions and write Heritage, comment clauses suggests that the production of the genre is the scholarly critique mechanism that overrides the write essay American Heritage role of social ties with respect to scholarly critique Charterhouse language choice. This is supported by the observation that Defoe and Steele behave similarly despite the absence of social ties, and write english essay Heritage School, that Dryden and Defoe behave similarly despite the absence of and Holland International a social tie, and that Dryden and Swift behave similarly despite the absence of a social tie. Accordingly, looking ahead, I am interested in ascertaining a range of features as diagnostic for practices by the periodical discourse community. This involves selecting a range of constructions, lexico-grammatical as well as discourse structures, for investigation. This need not be started from scratch, but can be based on the register-based studies conducted in the field. In order to fine-tune the notion of the a good essay American Heritage School discourse community of periodical essay writers, it will be useful to differentiate periodical essays from other (occasional, subject-specific) essays for systematic examination.
The analysis must also include a study of dates of publication as well as publication history of the periodicals and manner of transmission in order to opposing argument establish the write a good english American School emergence of discourse practices that mark this community, and the ways in which social relationships interact with discourse community to shape language use in the period. Boissevain, Jeremy. 1974. Friends of Friends: Networks, Manipulators and Coalitions. New York: St. Thompson. Martin?s Press. Carley, K.M., D. Krackhardt, 1996. ? Cognitive inconsistencies and non-symmetrical friendship ? , Social Networks 18 , 1-27. Cowler, R. (ed.). 1986. The Prose Works of Alexander Pope.
Vol II: The Major Works, 1725-1744. London: Basil Blackwell. Dobree, B. and N. Davis, 1959, repr. 1976. English Literature of the Early Eighteenth Century. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004a. ? Orality, standardization, and the effects of print publication on the look of Standard English in the eighteenth century ? . In: Dossena, Marina and Lass, Roger (eds.), Methods and Data in English Historical Dialectology . Bern: Peter Lang. 2004: 351-383. Fitzmaurice, S. 2004b. ? Subjectivity, intersubjectivity, and the historical construction of interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers ? . Discourse Studies 6/2. 427-448.
Fitzmaurice, S. 2003. ? The Grammar of how to write a good essay American stance in early eighteenth-century English epistolary language ? . In: Charles Meyer and problem and Holland Study Center, Pepi Leistyna (eds.), Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use . Amsterdam, Rodopi. 2003. 107-131. Fitzmaurice, S. How To Write A Good Essay Heritage School. 2000a. ? Coalitions and the investigation of social influence in linguistic history ? . EJES ( European Journal of English Studies ) 4/3. 265-276. Fitzmaurice, S. 2000b. ? The Spectator , the politics of social networks, and language standardisation in eighteenth-century England ? . In: Laura Wright (ed.), The Development of Standard English, 1300-1800 . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 195-218.
Hyland, K. Apply Critical The University. 1999. Disciplinary Discourses: Social Interactions in Academic Writing . Harlow, England: Longman/Pearson. Johns, A.M. and J. M. Swales. 2002. ? Literacy and disciplinary perspectives: opening and closing perspectives ? . Journal of English for write a good english Academic Purposes 1. 13-28. Johns, A.M. 1997. Text, Role, and thinking, Context: Developing Academic Literacies . New York: Cambridge University Press. Marsden, P.V. and how to, N.E. Friedkin.
1994. ? Network Studies of Social Influence ? . In: Stanley Wasserman and Joseph Galaskiewicz (eds.) , Advances in Social Network Analysis: Research in the Social and Behavioural Sciences . London: Sage Publications. Milroy, James. 1992. Linguistic Variation and Change: On the Historical Sociolinguistics of English . Oxford etc. Blackwell. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy. 1985. Authority in Language: Investigating Language Prescription and Standardisation . London etc.: Routledge Kegan Paul. Milroy, James Lesley Milroy, 1997. ? Network structure and linguistic change ? . In: N. Coupland A. Jaworski (eds.), Sociolinguistics: A Reader and Coursebook . London: Macmillan. Milroy, Leslie, 1994. ? Interpreting the role of extralinguistic variables in linguistic variation and change ? . In: G. Opposing Argument John F. Kennedy. Melchers N.L. Essay. Johannsson (eds.), Nonstandard Varieties of Language . Stockholm: Alqvist Wiksell.
131-145. Sutherland, J. Critique Charterhouse. 1969. English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Swales, J. 1988. ? Discourse communities, genres and English as an a good english essay American School international language ? . World Englishes 7/2. Critique Charterhouse. 211-220. Wilke, H.A.M. (ed.). 1985. How To Write A Good Heritage. Coalition Formation . Advances in Psychology 24. New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Willer D. and B. Anderson (eds.).
1981. Networks, Exchange and Coercion: The Elementary Theory and its Application . New York Oxford: Elsevier Science Publishers. Zeggelink, E. 1994. Apply Critical The University Of Nottingham. ? Dynamics of structure: an individual-oriented approach ? . Social Networks 16 . 295-333.  For details, see Fitzmaurice (2004a), and other references.  To introduce a degree of flexibility into the characterisation, I have judged each parameter for each relationship on how to english essay Heritage School, a five-point scale. The overall calculation of ? proximity ? is then a mean of the aggregated scores: greatest proximity = 1, least proximity (greatest distance) = 5.  For a detailed account of the quarrel, see Chapter 3 of argument F. Kennedy International Fitzmaurice (2002).
 Although this is an essay, it has the look and feel of a sermon, in which the write a good english School speaker invokes the congregation?s experience and beliefs and yokes those with her/his own.