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artist essays Emil Orlik was born Prague on 21st July 1870 . At that time Prague was the capital of a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and thus he was an Austrian citizen, not Czechoslovakian as is articles Clifton College, frequently stated. A Persuasive Millfield? His family, being Jewish, lived near the Prague ghetto. His father was a master tailor as was his brother Hugo. There was a large German speaking community in Prague (called Bohemian Germans) including an artistic circle which included friends of Orlik's such as Franz Kafka, Franz Werfel, Max Brod and Rainer Maria Rilke. Throughout his school years Orlik had been passionate about drawing and on leaving school in 1889 he was allowed by his father to go to Germany, hoping to be enrolled at review articles College the Academy of Park, Fine Art there. He was not accepted however, so he enrolled at the private art school of Heinrich Knirr in writing articles Clifton Munich, where a fellow pupil was Paul Klee. Orlik's target remained the Munich Academy and application Irvine, he gained a place in 1891 under Professor von Lindenschmit who soon recognised his talents and writing review, allocated him a small studio. Orlik worked hard, copying old masters at the Munich Pinakothek, constantly improving his techniques. In 1893 he won the silver medal for two of his pastel drawings which were shown at the academy's annual exhibition, with the honour of hanging near works by Adolph von Menzel, one of the most prominent artists in writing University (UCI) Germany. Review? The Academy had a department led by Professor Raab teaching copper engraving.

Orlik enrolled for these classes but was at loggerheads with the professor for branching away from the curriculum, experimenting with all aspects of etching and lithography. He was soon doing work beyond Raab's understanding. In 1893 Orlik impetuously left the academy as he felt constrained by conservative academic training. He wanted to start working in more modern styles and reasoning Ashford, was drawn to the Munich Naturalistic movement and the circle around Wilhelm Leibl. After a year of military training he returned to Clifton Prague in 1894 and painted and made prints of his friends and sentences Stanstead College, surroundings there. In 1896 Orlik returned to Munich to College work with his fellow pupil and life-long friend Bernhard Pankok on article Millfield their first essays in the making of colour woodcut prints. They had seen examples of Japanese woodcut prints and were fascinated by them. He began contributing illustrations to the journal Jugend . By 1897 Orlik was such an accomplished print-maker that four of his small etchings were chosen for publication in the prestigious art magazine PAN. Also illustrated in PAN was a reproduction of his first poster 'Die Weber', designed for the play of the same name produced by Gerhart Hauptmann. Hauptmann was so impressed by the poster that he invited Orlik to Berlin to visit his studio and this was the first stepping stone to Orlik's involvement in the theatre.

He went on to become a leading set and costume designer for many productions. Through his friend the writing review articles Clifton College, writer Maria Rainer Rilke came the opportunity to become a book illustrator. By the end of 1897 Max Lehrs, assistant director of the Kupferstichkabinett (Graphics Collection) in Dresden began to add prints by Orlik to this important museum print collection. Lehrs can be considered to be the 'discoverer' of Orlik and he bought may of how to a critique College, Orlik's prints for his own extensive collection. They were lifetime friends and maintained a correspondence almost until the artist's death. Much of the details of Orlik's travels and day-to-day life is writing articles Clifton College, known from this correspondence, which has amazingly been preserved. How To Write A Critique On An St. Clair College? A book titled Malergr?sse (Artists Greetings) was published by Prestel in 1981 illustrating and transcribing the writing review Clifton, profusely illustrated letters and how to write on an, postcards. In 1898 Orlik made his first journey abroad, visiting England, Scotland, Belgium and Holland as well as making the first of his many visits to Paris. There he came into writing articles Clifton College contact with the woodcut artist Felix Vallotton and in London with William Nicholson who was making highly innovative woodcut posters and prints.

He recorded his travels in numerous etchings, lithographs and coursework Kensington, woodcuts. On returning to Prague he established himself in an atelier in an old tower with fine views over the picturesque city. He retained this studio until 1904. But by 1899 he was living in Vienna and showed works in the third exhibition of the writing articles Clifton, Vienna Secession, of which, as a member, he also contributed to School the group's publications on modern art trends, including 'Japonisme'. The Society was gaining in importance and visitors came from abroad, including K?the Kollwitz and Max Liebermann from Germany, and Auguste Renoir, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Camille Pissarro from Paris. There was much interchanging of Clifton College, ideas and discussion of Japonisme which was having such an impact throughout Europe, particularly on Stanstead Art Nouveau and Jugendstil artists, and the Nabis school in Paris.

At the review College, same time artists in clear reasoning Ashford School America were also coming under this influence (notably Mary Cassatt and Helen Hyde). In February 1900 Orlik had great success with his first one-man exhibition in Br?nn in Austria, showing works in many media. Review College? It was at this time that Max Lehr introduced Orlik to Marie von Gomperz and her family. Her father, Max von Gomperz was a wealthy industrialist and patron of the write article School, arts. He bought from and commissioned many paintings and other works by Orlik. Marie Gomperz and Orlik developed a life-long friendship documented through their correspondence which continued until the time of Orlik's death. The extensive Gomperz collection of his work was exhibited at the Jewish Museum in review Clifton Vienna in 1997. Orlik's oeuvre reflects this patronage and friendship through many portraits of members of the family and of their country estate of Oslawan in Slovakia and its surroundings. Meanwhile, in March of 1900 Orlik undertook his first voyage to the Far East, the momentous 'Reise nach Japan'.

He wanted to write a persuasive article School learn at first hand and at its source how to articles Clifton master the techniques which were of such fascination to him. He absorbed much knowledge from the artists, woodblock-carvers and printers with whom he worked. He wrote many letters with descriptions of his travels in Japan to friends in Europe and Reiner Maria Rilke contributed an article to write topic sentences the magazine 'Ver Sacrum' relating the descriptions written to him by Orlik. He wrote to Max Lehr on 22nd February 1901 that he had spent a fortune on acquiring prints, netsuke and other Japanese artefacts. As soon as Orlik arrived home in November 1901 he had to prepare for an important exhibition of his work to be held at the prestigious Cassirer Gallery in Berlin in December. During the writing review articles College, following year Orlik had a series of one-man shows in many venues, including one at the Rudolphinum in Prague at which the entire exhibition was bought by the Prague Kupferstichabinett.. At the XIIIth exhibition of the Vienna Secession he showed 16 works, all of Japanese subjects, alongside works by assessment Kensington Park School, Max Klinger. His name now appeared in the index of the Berlin Secession, together with those of Klimmt, Monet and Camille Pissarro. Many articles appeared in various publications about his Japanese travels, the articles Clifton College, artefacts he brought back and his work.

He travelled again to England and Paris, where the work of C?zanne made a great impression on him. At the how to write topic sentences for essays Stanstead, end of review, 1904 Orlik was appointed head of the department for graphic art and book illustration at the Academy of the Museum of Applied Arts in Berlin, the teaching post he retained until his retirement in 1930. Among his many pupils who gained fame in how to for essays Stanstead their own right was George Grosz who wrote admiringly of Orlik's teaching in his autobiography. Orlik was now established in writing College Berlin and began working on his costume and stage designs for the Deutsches Theater, led by how to a persuasive article, Max Reinhardt. Many more articles about him and his work appeared in various publications, including one in 'The Studio' in London. At this time Orlik met and became friendly with the Berlin Secession group led by Max Liebermann, who had just returned from Paris and was to review articles Clifton become the leading German Impressionist painter. Other important members of the group were Lovis Corinth, Erich B?ttner and writing in spanish Academy, Max Slevogt. Writing Review? The SPOG group was also founded (Slevogt, Pankok, Orlik and Grundberg. Grunberg was a dentist but also a fine amateur artist). Orlik had met the author Lafcadio Hearn in Japan.

Hearn had assumed Japanese citizenship under a Japanese name and he lectured at how to for essays a number of universities writing many books on the country and its culture which were widely read in England and America and greatly furthered knowledge in Europe of Japanese life, philosophy and writing articles College, art. Orlik both translated Hearn's books into German and Ashford School, illustrated them. Over the next few years Orlik was indefatigable in holding exhibitions in many venues and in working in theatre design. In 1912 he made his next important journey abroad, visiting North Africa, Ceylon, China, Korea and Japan, returning via Siberia. In Egypt he executed an outstanding series of writing articles, etchings later published in how to article School a portfolio Aus Aegypten . Returning to Germany he continued to play a leading role in the Berlin Secession until 1913 when he and Liebermann both resigned. Articles Clifton? Book design became an important part of Orlik's oeuvre, as well as ex libris labels for in spanish literally hundreds of friends and writing, book collectors. Book collectors of the time vied with each other in commissioning well known artists to designing their label, many having numerous designs. In all, Orlik designed 136 ex libris and although about a dozen were made gratis for essays of California, Irvine (UCI) close friends, the work was lucrative. He was paid up to 500 marks each, a considerable sum in pre-World War I days. Orlik was also called upon to design colour posters for exhibitions, theatre productions and even commercial products.

He produced hundreds of writing articles College, posters most of which are today highly sought after and scarce. In December 1917 Orlik was appointed official artist to the Best-Litovsk Peace Conference at which Russia and Germany ended their conflict. Write? He produced 72 portrait studies at the conference, including a number of writing review articles College, Leo Trotsky. Many of these he later published as lithographs in a portfolio. After the war he continued working at a frantic pace, exhibiting at many venues throughout Europe. He also became interested in photography, experimenting with the use of article, light. He was one of the pioneers in the use of photographs as studies for graphics and paintings, particularly for his portraits of leading celebrities.

He claimed that photography permitted him to obtain the writing review College, essence of his endeavours towards the perfect portrait. His earliest essays in photography were made around 1917, but by the mid-twenties he produced brilliant photo portraits of Marlene Dietrich, Albert Einstein and many others. In December 1923 Orlik made his last voyage out of Europe. He received a commission to paint the portrait of a sitter in Cincinnati. His passage and a two month's stay in writing application essays of California, (UCI) the U S A were provided. While in America he had an exhibition in New York. The City fascinated him and he wrote to Gerhart Hauptmann : After overcoming the first confusion it is a completely different world. The city is amazing. The dollar rules here!.

He said he found it easier to get used to China than to New York. After his return to Europe he continued to work intensely and writing review articles Clifton College, his fame increased. He became one of the best known artists of the day. He continued travelling in Europe - to Spain, Italy, England and write a persuasive article, France. Portrait commissions and graphic work kept him busy till the time of his death from a heart attack in writing review articles Berlin on 28th September 1932, nine days after his great friend Max Slevogt. His brother Hugo inherited his considerable estate, including many paintings, drawings and prints. During his many visits to Paris he had acquired a fine collection of works by his friend Henri Matisse and by many other prominent artists, including C?zanne. Hugo Orlik and his family perished during the war at the hands of the Nazis. The only coursework assessment, survivor of the writing review College, family was an aunt who, after the war, regained some of what was left of Emil's effects. For Essays Stanstead College? In 1963 the review articles Clifton College, first post-war German exhibitions of Orlik's works were held in Berlin and Stuttgart and then in writing essays of California, Irvine 1977 there was a major retrospective in Austria. Interest in his work was rekindled and his stature and importance once again recognised.

Many books about Orlik and his works have been published and once again he has taken his place in art history as an important painter and ground-breaking print-maker.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of traditional learning. To take the review Clifton College, place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and the active development of in spanish, new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the writing review, production of practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition.

At the essays, same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for articles Clifton, the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the write a persuasive, ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of bribery and forced to leave public office. He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for writing review Clifton College, better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. For Essays College! Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family.

His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the writing review articles, Seal, and a critique article St. Clair College Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of articles Clifton, Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the esteemed English translator of write a persuasive article Millfield School, Castiglione, and to writing articles Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the most powerful man in England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in coursework assessment Park School Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to Aristotelianism (though not to the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn. Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to take a position in review College the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to coursework assessment Park the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of a second marriage and review College the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of law. Bacon completed his law degree in 1582, and in writing in spanish Domus Academy 1588 he was named lecturer in writing review articles Clifton College legal studies at Gray’s Inn.

In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for article St. Clair College, Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in review articles 1596. It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of for essays Stanstead, intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and writing review articles Clifton College a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and write St. Clair Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved.

After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions: 1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment.

Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall. In 1621 he was arrested and writing review articles charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and in spanish Domus Academy a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come.

As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the writing review articles Clifton, accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against how to write article, the two petitioners who had offered the fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against writing College, him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and coursework Park School republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant. Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and writing review moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an a critique on an article St. Clair College, intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on 9 April, 1626, supposedly of articles Clifton, a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in coursework assessment Kensington Park a remarkable final burst of Clifton, literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and essays in spanish Academy biography, The History of the Reign of King Henry the writing review articles Clifton, Seventh and The History of the Reign of King Henry the Eighth. De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels.

The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the assessment Kensington, work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Various parts of his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and a “Natural History of review articles Clifton College, Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.

Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of essays in spanish Domus Academy, English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Review Articles College! Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of write topic sentences, 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and scientific works, we must surely place him in the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and writing review articles College Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and (UCI) carefully arranged symmetries than through the use of plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to writing review Clifton College have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is of California, Irvine actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)

Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and Clifton College living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and coursework assessment Park fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at writing Clifton least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and how to St. Clair transparent meaning. Writing Articles College! After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. Reasoning Ashford School! According to Bacon’s amanuensis and writing articles Clifton College first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and sentences Stanstead political organization of an ideal commonwealth). Writing Review Articles Clifton College! The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner.

The thin plot or fable is how to write Millfield little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of review articles Clifton, Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the how to write a critique on an article College, Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from writing review College Bacon’s point of view) apply the knowledge they gain to produce “things of use and practice for man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan. But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only coursework assessment Kensington Park School as an effective inspiration and articles College model for the British Royal Society, but also as an assessment Kensington, early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is never easy to writing review College summarize the thought of a prolific and wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by a persuasive Millfield, his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for College, example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of how to write a critique St. Clair College, knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in a famous letter to writing review College his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to coursework assessment School be his province and vowed his personal commitment to writing review Clifton College a plan for the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning.

In effect, he dedicated himself to a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on assessment Park School that pledge. In 1620, while he was still at writing Clifton the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for Domus, an enormous work that would fully answer to his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the writing review articles, “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in writing Domus Academy its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the writing Clifton College, other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag. Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the write topic sentences for essays Stanstead, Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an enlarged version of the earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in writing review College 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the University Irvine (UCI), author’s detailed explanation and demonstration of the correct procedure for interpreting nature. It first appeared in 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the terms “Baconian” and “Baconianism.”

Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to review refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is writing University of California, Irvine (UCI) possible. “There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . Writing Review! He goes on writing essays University of California, (UCI) to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of learning and articles Clifton identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from topic sentences for essays Stanstead College outside criticism, and writing articles Clifton College that are offered largely to an audience of Ashford School, credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of Clifton College, astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to any intellectual endeavor in which the write topic for essays College, principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of past knowledge but merely with the revival of writing review articles Clifton, Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.

Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of coursework assessment, phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of review College, view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in coursework assessment Kensington Park more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on review College trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to the discovery of a critique on an St. Clair, new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and review Clifton College eventually to a better life for all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the preservation of how to write on an article, older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.

What is needed – and this is a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and human progress – is a program to re-channel that same creative energy into writing articles College, socially useful new discoveries. Though it is hard to pinpoint the clear reasoning Ashford School, birth of an idea, for all intents and writing review articles Clifton College purposes the modern idea of how to topic for essays Stanstead College, technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and writing review Clifton College became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the write on an College, force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is all the more remarkable for review articles College, its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and how to topic sentences philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and College decline. Writing Application University! Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and writing articles declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of how to write article School, senile immobility and writing review articles Clifton eventual darkness. “Our age is reasoning Ashford School iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an review College, article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. In the Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of School, hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the arts and sciences.

h. Writing Review Articles College! The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of topic sentences Stanstead College, De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for a new division of review articles Clifton, human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and reason). Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.” Evidently Bacon believed that in order for a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the how to topic College, prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by making history (the domain of fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the past (as in articles Clifton College history plays or heroic poetry) or of how to write Stanstead, allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). Writing Review Articles Clifton College! The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and correcting the mind in its quest for essays Domus, a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. Review Clifton College! (This notion of how to a critique College, surpassing ancient authority is aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.)

The New Organon is presented not in the form of review Clifton, a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to application of California, Irvine favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in Clifton College the true spirit of scientific experiment and critical inquiry. Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and symbol, the essays Academy, aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and writing review College philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the mind and prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the clear School, idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and writing review refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the clear Ashford School, Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of a false god or heathen deity but rather in writing review the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Thus a Baconian idol is coursework assessment a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol.

Each arises from a different source, and each presents its own special hazards and difficulties. 1. The Idols of the articles Clifton College, Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. School! Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only writing review Clifton recognized and compensated for. Some of Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in coursework Kensington phenomena than is writing articles actually there.

As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is coursework Kensington actually singularity, regularity where there is writing review articles Clifton actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true. Our tendency to rush to clear Ashford conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from individual to articles Clifton College individual. Domus Academy! They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from culture and review College thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and beliefs that we are all subject to owing to write a critique on an article St. Clair our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of our own narrow training or discipline.

3. Writing Review Clifton College! The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and how to a persuasive article Millfield School disciplines. He points out review articles College that “the idols imposed by words on write a persuasive the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of articles College, things that do not exist” (e.g., the sentences for essays Stanstead College, crystalline spheres of Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. Writing College! – can be a particular source of write, confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from three particular types of review articles College, philosophy:

Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on write a persuasive School a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example. Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of articles College, research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to explain phenomena of all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of essays in spanish, natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of review articles Clifton College, “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the University of California, Irvine (UCI), essential foundation of scientific method and writing review a necessary tool for the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to application University of California, have been more fully explained and demonstrated in writing articles College Part IV of the Instauratio in writing essays Irvine (UCI) a section titled “The Ladder of the Intellect,” but unfortunately the review Clifton, work never got beyond an introduction.) According to coursework Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the review articles Clifton College, classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from write on an St. Clair College . Writing! . . sense and Kensington Park School particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at intermediate propositions. Thus, for College, example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from how to on an St. Clair this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the review College, intermediate axioms may be false as well.

All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and reasoning Ashford “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general. And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to review Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to clear reasoning Ashford School be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of writing, inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and how to sentences for essays College reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions?

Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of his commentators and critics have had doubts. Writing Articles Clifton College! For one thing, it is not clear that the Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true. For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the leap from observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand?

The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to writing application of California, (UCI) guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for review articles College, the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on how to a persuasive Millfield School continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of writing review College, instances becomes not just the initial stage in clear reasoning a process, but the very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the articles Clifton College, New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to School a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Every scientist and academic person knows how tempting it is to put off the review Clifton, hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of a critique College, natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. Writing Review Clifton College! The assessment is Ashford School just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of review, nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the writing application Irvine, Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and review Clifton College then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of clear reasoning School, science who can be legitimately termed an authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is articles one thing to how to a persuasive collect instances in writing review College order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to write article theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and natural selection, that elegantly and review articles College powerfully explains their entire history and writing University of California, (UCI) variety.) Science, that is to writing review say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of clear, Baconian observation and induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at writing review articles Clifton College the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the essays University (UCI), movements of writing review College, celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres.

Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the fact (contrary to writing essays University of California, Irvine Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Review Articles Clifton! Harvey, by a similar process of quantitative analysis and deductive logic, knew that the how to write a persuasive article Millfield School, blood must circulate, and it was only to provide proof of review Clifton College, this fact that he set himself the secondary task of how to write on an article College, amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the Clifton College, point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by write article Millfield School, subsequent research.

In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of writing articles Clifton College, imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and bee-like data collection) in the production of new scientific knowledge. Application Of California, Irvine (UCI)! And in this respect it is true that he wrote of writing articles, science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of article School, recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the articles, other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge. By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the write article Millfield, founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the review Clifton, title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to coursework more than one professional discipline or area of learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to writing articles moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of powerful nobles and heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the achievements of most academic and political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial.

His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an angel of enlightenment and application University Irvine (UCI) social vision. His admirers in writing the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to how to a persuasive article the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an exalted leader who virtually all by writing review articles Clifton, himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of both their Lawes. . . Kensington Park! . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the Mountains Top of review College, his Exalted Wit,

Saw it himself and shew’d us it. How To Write A Critique On An St. Clair! . Writing Clifton! . How To A Persuasive Article! . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and writing College Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the how to topic Stanstead College, later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him. The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the Clifton College, keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the essays Domus, modern era and emblazoning his name on the front page of the Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of articles, modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on how to a persuasive his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to College be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in Ashford School history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on articles Clifton the English . After referring to writing application Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on Clifton behalf of the empirical method and as an advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us. The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for writing essays, the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for writing, human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and write a critique on an article College foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary.

On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the writing Clifton College, instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and Ashford science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the review Clifton College, great inventor of the write article, idea of science as both a communal enterprise and writing review a practical discipline in the service of humanity. Essays! On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and articles ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay.

He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to be less of a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman. Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and write topic College Letters and Life is still that of James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).

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The Ultimate List of AP English Language Tips. The AP Language and Composition exam tests your ability to not only read content, but also to analyze what you have read and draw conclusions to present in an argument. The test consists of two parts: multiple choice and free response. These AP English Language tips can help you feel confident about scoring a 5 on the AP Language and Composition exam. Let’s get started. AP English Language Course Study Tips. Before you learn how to review articles College study for the specific portions of the AP Language exam, it’s time to learn how to study for AP courses in general. AP stands for reasoning Ashford School, Advanced Placement; meaning, the courses are designed to challenge you more so than a regular high school class.

It’s safe to say that it’s nearly impossible to pass the AP Language and Composition exam if you don’t have a grasp on how to study for a class as stimulating as an writing Clifton, Advanced Placement course. 1. Become Familiar with AP Style Questions: Before you can even begin to how to on an St. Clair College study for the AP exams, you need to familiarize yourself with the overall format of the questions being asked on writing review Clifton, the exam. AP Central is a study aid website developed by the College Board, who writes the clear reasoning, AP exam. Here, they have the review articles Clifton, formats of the questions being asked on writing University (UCI), specific AP exams. College. They even have copies of the questions present on previous AP exams. Take a look at the questions they have specifically for the AP Language and Composition exam on writing application essays of California, Irvine (UCI), AP Central. 2. Complete Any Summer Work Assigned: Many AP English courses require you to read a few books over the summer vacation months.

The teachers expect you to have read the writing Clifton College, content, and in some cases, they’ll even want you to complete a book report or project during the first week of class. It would be incredibly unwise to procrastinate and try to Ashford cram reading three or more books in the span of the review College, last few weeks of summer. Not only will you stress yourself out, but you also will hinder your understanding of the content. If you plan on procrastinating and not doing what is Domus asked by your AP teachers, be prepared for a rude awakening at the beginning of the school year in the form of writing articles Clifton, a bad project grade. This can develop into your end of the year exam scores suffering. 3. Writing Application Irvine. Teach Yourself the Material: A good portion of review Clifton College, Advanced Placement courses is writing Irvine based on teaching yourself the content. Review Clifton. I can guarantee that you won’t understand every single concept covered in Stanstead College, the hour or so that you’re actually in writing Clifton College, the classroom.

When this inevitably happens, you’re going to how to on an article St. Clair College feel lost and the subject matter becomes a little daunting. But the rest is writing review up to writing application essays (UCI) you: you can either take it into your own hands and research the topic when you get home, or you can ignore the topic completely and hope you understand the next one. Here’s a hint: you should choose the first one. There’s a huge abundance of extra content out there for you to discover. Of course, there are the obvious choices like YouTube review videos and review Clifton articles explaining the content you find a little hazy. However, there’s also an incredible amount of hidden gems around the Internet just waiting to writing be discovered. Teachers don’t have time to cover every single tiny detail of content in the sixty minutes or so that they have you every day. At the end of the year, it’s up to you to make sure you understand everything to make a 5 on writing review Clifton, the AP exam. 4. Develop Critical Thinking Skills: A good portion of Advanced Placement courses is a persuasive School designed to test your ability to writing review Clifton think critically. Critical thinking is a skill that will be extremely beneficial for you to acquire, not only for AP courses, but also for how to a persuasive article, real life.

To pass many AP courses, you need to understand that everything covered isn’t simply black and white. There are an writing, incredible number of gray areas within the coursework assessment Park, content that you need to learn to approach from every angle. If you keep an open mind and combine your observations as well as inferences you’ve made with the material, critical thinking will be a skill you’ll build with ease. This will drastically increase your odds of scoring high on AP exams. 5. Go to Class: Avoid missing your AP classes at all costs. If you’re not in class, how can you possibly expect to learn the content? You’re more likely to get behind on assignments if you miss class, which can become very stressful. Any amount of added stress can severely affect your understanding of vital concepts covered on writing, the end of the year exams. 6. Form a Study Group: One of the most effective ways to study for how to write a persuasive article Millfield School, any exam is to form a study group.

Ideally, this group will contain members of all knowledge levels. Writing Review Articles Clifton. Each person will bring something to how to for essays Stanstead the table—maybe you know more about symbolism than Susan, while Susan understands literary devices better than Ryan, and so on. Learning other people’s viewpoints on review, the subjects covered on application of California, (UCI), the different exams will help you approach questions from every angle. Now that you’ve followed the previous general Advanced Placement study tips, you can focus on studying specifically for the AP Language and Composition exam. This part of this article will focus on the multiple-choice portion, which amounts to 45% of your overall score. So you could say that it’s pretty important.

Start your AP English Language Prep today. AP English Language Multiple Choice Tips. 1. Prepare Early: The most important tip for acing any standardized exam is to develop good study habits. Prepare early. Writing. If possible, start at the beginning of the semester.

Once you learn your first new topic or cover a key concept, review it that night. Then, when you learn your second, study that in addition to the previous learned concept. The process should go on throughout the how to write a critique St. Clair College, semester which will be a surefire way to remember important content at the end of the review, year. 2. Test Yourself: If you’re one of the many high school students who don’t spend most of their time studying, preparing early, and following the system of the previous study tip, we understand. You have cheer practice, guitar lessons, homework and everything in between. Studying every single night may be a bit of a struggle. Writing Domus Academy. If this sounds like you, then the best option for writing articles Clifton College, studying for the AP Language exam is to test yourself. Periodically throughout the semester, look up practice exams to test your comprehension of the material. 3. Essays In Spanish Domus Academy. Read the Passages FIRST: Everyone knows the classic shortcut when it comes to multiple choice tests—read the questions first, then scan the passages to look for the answers.

This is a method of approaching the exam that is articles completely wrong. It will leave you without a deep understanding of what the passage is writing application essays University (UCI) about. With less comprehension, you’re more likely to make mistakes and choose the wrong answer. 4. Read the writing review, Questions Thoroughly: This goes without saying. Writing Essays. If you don’t have a good grasp on the content of the question, you’re going to get it wrong. Read the Clifton, questions carefully and how to a persuasive article determine what it is asking, where in the text the answer can be found, and whether any of the choices provide a logical answer to the question.

Sometimes the answer to the questions can be complicated and review College rather unnerving. To avoid getting overwhelmed by this, try covering up the multiple choice answers with your hand or ignore them completely while you read just the stem of the question. Clear Reasoning Ashford School. Try to come up with an answer for the question before you even glance at the possible choices. 5. Reread Portions of the Text: When you have determined where in the passage an answer can be found, reread that portion. Dissect it thoroughly and from there, decide what the correct answer might be. 6. Writing. Use the Process of Elimination: This tip may be a little bit obvious. Ever since you were young, you’ve heard the how to topic sentences, helpful suggestion of deducing answers. If you’re familiar with the subject matter of the question, it should not be hard to rule out at least one of the choices that you have determined not to writing articles College be the answer. Essays In Spanish Domus Academy. Physically mark through the writing articles Clifton College, answers you believe are wrong. It will help you to visually see which answers couldn’t possibly be the right one. Be sure to writing essays in spanish take your time when deducing an answer.

Sometimes the writers of the test will write two answer choices that seem almost identical. However, one of them will have the writing review articles Clifton, slightest difference that makes it incorrect. It might also help you to circle or underline the terms or reasoning within the wrong answer choices that proves they are incorrect. This may help you further into the test. If you get stumped on a critique College, a similar question, you may look back onto these incorrect responses. With this information, you can deduce which answers are incorrect and which are correct. 7. Skip Difficult Questions: Because the multiple-choice portion is timed, you may not have time to writing Clifton College answer every single question if you are unsure of how to write a persuasive article Millfield School, a few.

The simplest way to clear your mind and focus on the easier question is to immediately skip the more difficult questions that require more critical thinking. Then, once you have answered all of the questions you feel more confident about, go back to the more difficult questions, if time permits. 8. Use Circles or Check Marks: Whenever you skip a question, be sure to writing circle its number. That way, when you’re going back through your test, the search time for unanswered questions will be cut drastically. Alternatively, you can put a check mark beside every question you have answered, leaving unanswered questions with a blank space beside the numbers. 9. When in Doubt, Guess: On the AP Language and Composition exam, like every other Advanced Placement exam, your score on the multiple-choice portion is write topic sentences Stanstead College based on writing articles Clifton, the number of questions you answer correctly. There is no penalty for incorrect answers.

So there’s no logical reason not to guess on questions you are stumped on. 10. Make Flashcards: For terms or concepts that are crucial for you to memorize, make flashcards. It may seem like an elementary study tip, but it truly works. Write Topic Stanstead. Pay special attention to terms or concepts that you don’t fully understand. 11. Study before Bed: If you’ve made flashcards, a great time to study them, or really any notes you’ve taken, is before you go to bed. Writing Articles College. The brain remembers the most information right before you go to sleep.

This is because when you’re asleep, it processes the most important memories of your day for storage. If you review right before bedtime, your brain prioritizes this information and stores it for quick access. Writing Essays In Spanish Domus Academy. Because of College, this, it’d be a good idea to study first thing in the morning, too. This will remind your brain that the subject you’re studying really needs to be remembered. 12. Focus on Your Weaknesses: When you don’t quite understand a concept as well as you should, be sure to take time to College break it down. Run over it many times in your head and you can even research it for a better understanding. It’s crucial that you’re at least familiar with all concepts that are going to be covered on the exam. 13. Don’t Stress: This is easier said than done, we understand.

But there is nothing worse than working your way through multiple choice questions and writing review articles Clifton having your brain freeze because you’re stressed out. This makes it difficult to even read the question, let alone understand it. 14. Remember to Breathe: The best thing you can do when you get overwhelmed by the pressures of the exam is to take a deep breath. Have confidence that you know the material well enough to get through this portion with ease. The next part of this article will focus on the seemingly daunting free response portion of the AP Language and Composition exam, worth 55% of your score. This portion consists of three different essays you must write within a two-hour period after a mandatory fifteen-minute reading period. Ultimately, these essays will assess your ability to quickly formulate arguments form inferences and analysis drawn from the sources provided to you. If you don’t understand early on how to go about following the instructions that are asked on the exam, you might find this portion more difficult than the multiple-choice section. Start your AP English Language Prep today.

Here are some tips to help you ace this portion of the exam: AP English Language Free Response Question Tips. 1. Understand the Question: Make sure you read the write a persuasive, essay prompt many times and identify the key question being asked. Approach the question from each side of the writing review, possible argument that it poses. 2. Choose Your Side: Based on coursework Park School, the evidence provided for you in the passages you’ve read, come up with an argument. It is often helpful to choose an argument that has more evidence and references to support it, even if you do not necessarily agree with every tiny detail. 3. Create a Thesis: Come up with a strong thesis statement that clearly and effectively approaches the topic and the argument you are presenting. Don’t bother regurgitating the articles, prompt in writing essays University Irvine (UCI), your introductory paragraphs—the scorers will just assume you are filling space and it will make your argument seem weak and writing review articles College lacking confidence. Answer all of the questions asked by how to write on an article St. Clair College the prompt in your introductory paragraph and include the main point of your argument in your thesis.

4. Build a Strong Body: Once you have your thesis statement, construct body paragraphs around it. Be sure to mention how the supporting evidence you are citing within your essays relates back to your argument. 5. Be Specific: Ambiguity and vague sentences have no place within an AP Language and Composition exam essay. The readers of your essay expect you to be exact and to the point. They want you to prove a point to them, not dance around it aimlessly. The more specific you are with your information, the better.

6. Use Your Resources: You’re given sources for a reason. Use these to strengthen your argument and convince your audience of its legitimacy. Review Clifton. Failing to use the resources provided to you will result in an incredibly low score. Why should you be given a high score when you couldn’t even follow the directions of the exam? 7. Develop a Tone: The tone of an essay is what sets the stage for your argument. If there is no tone, it makes the essay seem sloppy and write topic sentences for essays College poorly structured. The argument itself may even seem scattered and all over the place. The tone of your essay should reflect your side of the argument.

If it doesn’t, how can the readers be expected to understand completely what side you are taking? 8. Learn How to Make Assumptions: A great deal of the scoring of review articles Clifton, this portion is based on the assumptions you make. The assumptions and inferences made from your sources are crucial. A Persuasive Millfield School. Use them to explain your viewpoints and strengthen your argument. Logical assumptions give interesting perspectives to the scorers of the essays. The use of writing review articles College, inferences and assumptions in your essays also demonstrates your ability to think critically (as we discussed earlier). 9. Writing Essays Domus Academy. Organize Your Thoughts: As you work through planning your argument in writing articles, the essays, make sure you take time to essays in spanish Academy organize your thoughts. Writing Review College. This will strengthen your argument and the overall structure of clear reasoning, your essay. Review College. If your essay is neat and clean, the scorers can easily find what they are looking for in a well-written argument. 10. Know the Fundamentals of Writing: If you are unfamiliar with the structure of an essay, you definitely need to learn it before the exam.

Think of an essay as a skeleton: the introductory, body, and conclusion paragraphs are the bones; the how to a persuasive article Millfield School, actual muscle, tendons, and organs holding it together are the bulk of the essay. Writing Review Articles Clifton College. This is what you add to it, including arguments and supporting evidence. 11. Use Variety: If you write your essay with choppy, short sentences having a simple vocabulary, the reader is going to assume that you are not well-versed in the English language. This can severely hurt your score—especially considering you are taking an exam in AP Language and University of California, Irvine (UCI) Composition. If anything, this course should make your writing shine and appeal to the scorer. You wouldn’t want the person grading your essay to assume that you are lacking in style and grammar. 12. Work Quickly: Although you want to keep all of these tips in writing review College, mind, remember that this is still a timed portion of the exam. You don’t have much time to spend trying to make every single part of your essays perfect.

13. Develop Time Management Skills: Learning time management skills early on can help tremendously when it comes to timed exams. Practice taking timed exams frequently throughout the semester to build confidence and skill. This will really help when you’re forced to Park formulate multiple arguments for different essays in a limited amount of time. 14.

Know the writing review College, Rubric: Knowing the rubric is an incredibly strategic move in acing the assessment Park School, AP Language and Composition essay portion. When you know what exactly it is the scorers usually look for, you can be at ease. Writing Review Clifton College. This is because you know exactly what to article Millfield put into your arguments to make for a high-scoring essay. 15. Develop a Good Attitude: Having a good attitude going into the course will show the teacher that you are there to review articles College learn. Teachers are more willing to help students that seem upbeat and overall well-rounded. This can also translate into how to write St. Clair confidence when it comes exam time. 16. READ!: This may seem obvious, but many students don’t understand how much reading is required for this course. AP Language and Composition covers writing styles throughout several centuries and it’s crucial to become familiar with all of them. Reading a few books for leisure in between assignments will help drastically in Clifton, developing a writing style of your own as well.

17. Practice Dissection: No, don’t worry; you won’t have to know how to dissect a dead frog for the AP Language exam. However, it is a good idea to how to on an article College practice dissecting everything you read. When reading, ask yourself: Who is the audience in this piece? What is it that the author is trying to accomplish by writing this? What is the main idea? Is there any symbolism used in vague sentences? 18. Write Neatly: Legible writing is writing articles Clifton College a scorer’s best friend. They are very busy people with thousands of clear reasoning Ashford, essays to grade.

They do not have much time trying to decipher your chicken scratch. The more the scorers can read, the more there is to review articles College grade. 19. Plan Out Your Essays: Even though the essay portion is essays timed, you should still take a few minutes to plan out review articles College your arguments. The last thing you want to do is confuse your readers by having a sloppy essay with little to University Irvine no organization or planning. Plans help bring structure and writing articles Clifton College life to your writings. 20. Avoid Cliches: Sure, a cliche may bring a sense of writing application, familiarity to your writing. But mostly, it just bores the reader. If you must use a common cliche phrase, try to change it up a bit by using synonyms for the verbs.

21. Be Specific: When writing your essays for writing review articles College, the AP Language and Composition exam, be specific. The prompt may ask you to discuss the rhetoric devices used in a passage. Instead of just listing them, provide a brief description of each device and how it is used. This will display a sophisticated understanding of the material sure to impress the readers. 22. Stay on Topic: This goes hand in hand with number five. If you have planned out your essay well, you’ll be more conscious as to when your writing is deviating from the how to write a persuasive, main topic.

Periodically look back at the prompt as you are writing to make sure you’re answering everything required in your essay. 23. Stay Healthy: A healthy body leads to writing Clifton College a healthy mind; they go hand in hand. Be sure to fuel your body and brain with water and a good hearty breakfast before your exam. Clear Reasoning School. Moreover, be sure to get enough exercise and eat healthy throughout the review Clifton College, rest of the year. You’ll come to see both your mood and your school performance increase. 24. Learn How to Handle Stress: Stress can take a toll on each and every one of us. Learning how to handle it is assessment Kensington a skill that is vital to every aspect of life, especially when it comes to school. Writing Review Articles. Be sure to coursework assessment Park remember that your mental and writing physical health is more important than a score on how to for essays, a high school exam.

Know your limits and take breaks when needed so you can assure a happy and healthy brain. 25. Be comfortable in uncertainty, for that will lead to clarity. The essence of all art, and literature is no exception, is that it dwells in the realm of writing review articles Clifton College, ambiguity and multiplicity; this is what makes great art. Consider Moby Dick, especially the write topic for essays Stanstead College, chapter “The Whiteness of the Whale,” this is fundamentally the writing review, world of art. Clear Reasoning School. If students can only manage or see one answer, they will never be able to truly understand literature and articles Clifton College will always succumb to superficial interpretations and clear reasoning Ashford debilitating stress.

Thanks for the truly insightful tip from Dan B. from Holy Cross High School. 26. Writing Articles College. Say you have to read two articles, one in the San Francisco Chronicle and one posted on a blog. You know nothing about clear reasoning Ashford either author. You know nothing about the content (topic). Brainstorm about what credibility factors you can deduce before you even see the articles Clifton, articles . Thanks for the tip from Mark M.

27. Multiple choice always presents a combination of easy, medium, and write on an St. Clair hard questions for each passage. Generally speaking, these questions follow the chronology of the passage, but they are all worth the same amount of points. Therefore, the best approach is to go for easy and medium questions first and skip questions that will require a significant amount of review, time up front. Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 28. When dealing with questions asking about things in context, the best approach is to return to the beginning of the sentence or the previous sentence and read the end of that sentence to understand its meaning. It may also be a good idea to read the sentence that follows as well. Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 29.

If you’re running out of time, you should either scan the how to College, remaining questions and find the shortest questions or look for questions that contain the answer without requiring you to refer back to the text. Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 30. College. A great way to pace yourself is to take the number of multiple choice questions and to divide the number by two. Therefore, if you have 60 questions to answer and an hour to do so, you should be at question 30 by the 30 minute mark. You can also use this approach by dividing by the number of passages. Thanks for the tip from Fred B. 31. Create your own excitement about the prompt and what you have to say about write sentences for essays College it.

If you can find a way to be passionate about it, you will write faster, easier, and review Clifton better. After this year’s test one of how to sentences for essays Stanstead College, my students said she remembered the tip and intentionally generated her own enthusiasm about her topics, so she came out feeling happy about what she wrote. She scored a 4. Thanks for review articles, the tip from Pam S. 32. How To Write Millfield School. Students need to enhance their vocabulary through adding quality verbs in order to read and write more effectively. This study should embrace the verb in both active and passive voice; likewise, the articles Clifton, verb should be mastered for gerundive and participial uses. Thanks for the tip from Mike M. 33. Read credible newspapers daily.

Connect current world events to classic essays and memoirs. Look for in spanish Domus Academy, the connection between the human condition and the speaker’s purpose. Always ask why? Why that word? Why that tone?

Why that call to action? Thanks for the tip from Bobbi C. 34. The two skills of the course are argument and writing review articles College rhetorical analysis. One bit of advice that is central to impart to students is the tenet “acknowledge complexity.” This is relevant in arguments (e.g. take time to address reasonable counter-arguments) and rhetorical analysis (e.g. a letter can be both threatening and clear reasoning Ashford conciliatory — check out Banneker’s letter to Jefferson from the Clifton, 2010 test). Passing the AP English Language and Composition exam is never going to be easy. But with the coursework, right amount of studying, motivation, and understanding (along with these tips, of course), you should have more than what it takes to score well on this exam. Prepare early, be confident in your comprehension of the material, and watch yourself work through the review Clifton College, exam with certainty. Thanks for essays of California, Irvine (UCI), the tip from Peter D.

Tips Submitted by AP English Language Teachers. Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an awesome tip? Let us know! Looking for writing College, AP English Language practice?

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essay with examples Read the topic and articles Clifton College, sample essay, then study the comments. Click on the highlighted text for comments about academic writing conventions; click on the notes in application essays of California, Irvine the margin for commentary on the essay. Birth rates are falling in Clifton College developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to writing, have children. And this is particularly true of articles Clifton women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence.

Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth. Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and coursework assessment Kensington Park, that urgent action is needed to encourage people to have more children. Articles Clifton College. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful.

The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the clear Ashford, total fertility rate (TFR) was about writing 2.6 births per essays in spanish, female, but in 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . Review Articles College. In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to how to a persuasive article School, below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . Writing Review Articles Clifton. A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to writing application essays of California, Irvine, create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and writing articles, other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of reasoning Ashford this trend and what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values.

It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to articles College, be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a). Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. A strong version of this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and are employed, but remain unmarried and continue live at home with their parents. Write A Critique Article College. These young people are spoilt, he says, and interested only in their own pleasure - mainly in the form of Clifton shopping. Clear Reasoning School. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). Writing Review. In other developed countries, there is a similar tendency for the young to remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and a similar tendency for older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a). But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about their attitudes to family, not only clear reasoning Ashford School, do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an review Clifton, Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to how to write on an St. Clair, have an review articles College, average of 2.33 children in their lifetime.

Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. Ashford. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and review articles Clifton, thirties, they encounter obstacles along the coursework assessment, way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and writing review Clifton College, motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the unfortunate consequence of threatening population stability.

But there are several problems with this argument. For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in writing Domus Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to women. Review Clifton. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in advancing the Domus Academy, rights of writing review women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about how to write a critique on an article College their values, still express a desire to have children. However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. The improved education and review Clifton, career opportunities for women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved.

Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of writing essays Domus Academy young people and their growing sense of insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child. One type of thinking is writing articles what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an application essays University, assessment of the writing articles Clifton, relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an economic benefit in how to write a persuasive article Millfield having children because they can be a source of labour to help the family. Writing. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the status of being a parent, having baby who will be fun and School, will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is writing articles College that for many couples nowadays the economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits.

McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on the side of safety in order to avert risk. McDonald points to write a persuasive Millfield School, a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from Clifton College life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. A Persuasive School. There is a strong economic cycle of review articles College booms and busts.

Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of writing essays Domus marital breakdown or the writing College, long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in living standards over their lifetime.

According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for how to a critique on an St. Clair College their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505). Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to writing review College, have fewer babies, then the key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. How To Article. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the writing review, young (McDonald, 2000b). It is how to a critique on an article St. Clair hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is Clifton College selfish to do otherwise. Park. Castigating the writing review College, young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. How To For Essays Stanstead College. (2000).

Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. Articles Clifton. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the blokes. A Persuasive Millfield. The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Review Articles Clifton. Below-replacement fertility in the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).

A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Coursework Assessment. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. (2000a).

Low fertility in writing review articles College Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21. McDonald, P. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003).

Student debt: A HECS on write sentences fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for review articles Clifton College Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge. Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in in spanish Domus the topic. What do you think?

Is this a reasonable explanation for writing review articles Clifton College the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and reading for it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to how to write on an article St. Clair College, be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening). Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and College, ii). In the essays in spanish Academy, last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and writing Clifton, then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen.

This is (UCI) presented as background information. Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in writing articles College your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to Ashford School, support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is articles Clifton you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. How To On An St. Clair. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in writing review articles Clifton College a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view.

Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers. The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in write St. Clair this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of these ideas. Writing Clifton. (Recall the reasoning School, student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Writing Clifton College. Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for this critique - mainly from the work of McDonald. Hint: it is quite OK to criticise the assessment, ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this.

But if you are going to be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for writing review College declining birthrates - and then went on to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence. In this paragraph the student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. Write Topic For Essays College. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . Writing. ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is application of California, something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the Clifton, student#039;s argument stated in coursework Kensington School the introduction: The best explanation is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by College, the young. The student now elaborates on this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the argument is the key to any essay you write.

In the body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for coursework Park the argument. The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by writing Clifton, young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the write topic sentences for essays, essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of evidence. Clifton. The student presents a range of evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is a persuasive article important to have an writing review articles Clifton, argument in how to write a persuasive article your essay. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Your essays will be judged mainly on Clifton your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion. In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to deal with the problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument.

Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the how to write a critique article, blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to writing articles College, consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured. Its paragraph structure can be set out thus:

Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for how to write a persuasive School your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the essay is Clifton free of spelling, typographical and how to write St. Clair College, grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it. Avoid doing your editing on articles Clifton the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in writing in spanish Academy the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to (cited) in the essay - not all the writing Clifton College, texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. Assessment Kensington Park School. This is a good number, and review articles Clifton, indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to Ashford School, include a reference to writing articles College, most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of essays University Irvine (UCI) references.

Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument. Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. And in Clifton College the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to how to write School, use these words in their written work. But in review articles fact they can often be found in academic writing. How To Write Topic For Essays College. In general, the best place to use them is in articles College the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the coursework assessment Kensington School, same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is not the review articles, words you use to coursework assessment Kensington School, present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument. Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.)

Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in writing review your essay. Writing Domus Academy. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg:

Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Clifton College, Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000). Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in topic College Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Review Articles College. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of coursework Kensington Park School a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:

He [Yamada] uses the term . According to Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by writing articles Clifton College, using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence. Coursework Assessment Kensington. If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. (When you do this in a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly.

Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. Writing Review College. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing. Notice the use of reporting verbs in coursework assessment School this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls.

. McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins. In this paragraph (#9), there is some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to articles Clifton College, make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in Stanstead length should be separated from the main text. Writing Articles. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Writing Application Essays Of California, Irvine (UCI). Again you should indicate the page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date).

Title. Writing Articles Clifton College. Place: Publisher. It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to sources from the world wide web in their essays. Write On An. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to writing review, include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to Ashford School, exercise some caution - there is writing Clifton College a lot of junk around.

Check all sites carefully to be sure the information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the application essays of California, Irvine (UCI), more reliable). Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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