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Once you have analyzed the results of your research, you are ready to plan and then write your term paper. Of East (INTO)! At this stage of the writing expository essay University (Study Group) process, you will have many notes and analyses that must be fit into type writing of East Anglia (INTO), a cohesive structure. Organizing Your Information. Your first step is to how to Ritz Switzerland sift through your research, select what is relevant to your statement of writing University, topic, and organize it into a pattern that brings order, unity, and logic to your information. These are some of the ways you can organize your material: Cause and expository University effect. Use this organization pattern if you want to type writing Anglia (INTO) show a cause-and-effect relationship. Outlining Your Paper. Unless your instructor prefers another method, your outline should follow the traditional format, using upper-case roman numerals for the major headings, upper-case roman letters for second-level headings, arabic numerals for act writing essay Pickering third-level headings, and lower-case letters for fourth-level headings. I. Time-and-motion studies A. Establish work standards 1. Type Writing Anglia (INTO)! Identify tasks a. Record movements. b. Numbers Essay Abbey! Time movements 2. Type! Analyze results B. Measure workers against standards. As this sample outline shows, each heading covers just one idea.
Also, because you can not logically divide an numbers in an Abbey College Manchester, idea into one part, you must have at least two lower-level headings below a higher-level heading—if you have any lower-level headings at all. Writing Your Paper. After you have outlined your paper, review your statement of topic again, lay out your research, and sit down to type of essays University of East Anglia (INTO) write. You need not write the writing numbers College Manchester sections in order. Just put your ideas into writing first, and type writing University Anglia arrange the sections later, following the a persuasive article Millfield School organization of of essays Anglia, your outline. When you use someone else's words or ideas in your paper without acknowledging the source, you are plagiarizing. Writing Expository Of Groningen Group)! Plagiarism—even when unintentional—violates ethical standards and is unacceptable in any situation. 4. Citing Sources. Many colleges and universities require students to use either the Modern Language Association (MLA) style or the American Psychological Association (APA) style when citing sources in term papers. This section offers a brief overview of each citation style.
For more information, see Slade's Form Style, 10/e, and Perrin's Handbook for College Research. Practices. New York: Harper Row, 1974, 465-480. Business Journal of Phoenix 20 July 1998. 27 July 1998 (http://www.amcity.com/phoenix/stories/ Like MLA style, APA style includes brief identifying information directly in the text rather than in footnotes.
The APA style is sometimes called author-date style because the author's last name and writing University Anglia the date of publication are shown (usually in parentheses, separated by a comma) in the sentence where the material is cited. No matter what aspect of business you are researching for your term paper, you will want to bookmark the following Web sites, most of which were described above. Also check your text's Web site for other useful links.
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EXECUTIVE RESUME EXAMPLES THAT PAINT THE PERFECT PICTURE. Well-Honed Packaging Marketing Skills Win The Best Jobs Faster Easier. Through actual observations of our clients over the years, it is effective essays Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, quite obvious that those who become most adept at type Anglia (INTO), packaging and marketing themselves are far more effective at job hunting than their other equally qualified job seekers who invest less effort into expository Group), the process. Those who can develop the type writing University of East Anglia (INTO), best written marketing materials, those who aggressively pursue the types of companies they have targeted, and those who have the most effective interviewing skills are the ones with the how to write a persuasive article Millfield, greatest chance for success. These are also the people who will often be able to type of essays writing University of East (INTO), cut several unnecessary and argumentative unwanted months off their average job-search time. This is University Anglia (INTO), certainly a goal well worth pursuing. Can You Write Your Own Resume? Should You? Can you write an effective executive resume yourself or should you hire a certified executive resume writer to write your resume for you? Only you know the critique, answer that's right for you, but learning what is type writing University of East Anglia, involved in crafting an effective resume will help you make a better, more informed decision.
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BIGGEST CHALLENGE - CHANGING AN INDUSTRY In our most recently conducted survey of scholarly Charterhouse, executives seeking employment, 12% said their biggest challenge was changing an industry. Type Writing Anglia! So, what unique challenges does this create for an executive resume? And what are the common ways to overcome them. BIGGEST CHALLENGE - MAKING YOUR RESUME LOOK MORE EXECUTIVE In our most recently conducted survey of executives, 35% said their biggest challenge was making their resume look more executive. So, what makes a resume an writing essay University of Groningen executive resume? And how does it differ from resumes of experienced. WHAT IS YOUR BIGGEST EXECUTIVE RESUME CHALLENGE? Recently we conducted a survey of University Anglia, executives who are actively looking to update their resumes or creating a new executive resume.
Our question was quite simple: What is your biggest resume challenge?. While there was quite a variety of.
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9 Steps to of essays writing University of East Anglia (INTO) Scoring a 9 on the AP European History DBQ. You’re starting to act writing Pickering study for your AP European History exam and you come across your first document-based question (DBQ). You freak out. Of Essays Of East (INTO)? Don’t worry, that reaction is completely natural. After all, AP Euro is aimed at students interested in earning a first-year college credit for History. It should come as no surprise that a college level class has a difficult writing component.
However in order to excel in AP Euro, you’re going to of Groningen (Study need to confront the DBQ head on. The DBQ can be very intimidating at of East Anglia first. Write A Persuasive Article? However, once you understand what the objective of the Anglia DBQ is, it gets easier. That’s why this AP European History review is going to argumentative Haileybury give you the most beneficial 9 Steps to Scoring a 9 on the AP European History DBQ. Let’s get started! Just in case you are fairly early in your AP Euro review sessions, we wanted to start by going over exactly what the DBQ is. And if you haven’t heard of it yet, trust us, you will. The DBQ has been seen as the of essays Anglia bane of the AP Euro student’s existence. Numbers Essay College Manchester? But it’s really not all that bad when you break it down. You will have 55 minutes to answer a single question. Your answer is going to revolve around 10 to 12 primary-source documents that range between photographs, letters, legal cases, etc.
But the answer you provide is type writing University of East, going to have to be in a concise essay format with a thesis that covers nearly every single document and shows that you understand the complexities of the historical narrative provided. That means structure and argumentation matter nearly as much as the evidence you use. If this sounds like a lot, don’t worry. This AP Euro History review should demystify the expository of Groningen (Study Group) whole BDQ thing. Type? Just follow these 9 Steps to Scoring a 9 on the AP European History DBQ and you’ll be golden. 1. Familiarize Yourself with How the AP European History Course Works. This one may seem like a bit of essay Pickering College, a no-brainer, but you’d be surprised how helpful it can be to get to know the AP Euro History course and exam. Of Essays Writing University Of East Anglia? First, you are going to want to thoroughly go through the CollegeBoard Website and subjects the AP European History Course and Exam Description . These two resources are going to be jam-packed with useful information. Of Essays Of East Anglia? By looking through these resources, you are going to get a feel for how the C ollegeBoard wants teachers to approach the class.
This includes the eras/topics that are going to be focused on the most in the classroom and writing numbers essay Abbey the significance of everything covered. But perhaps most importantly, it will lay out how every piece of type of essays University of East (INTO), information covered in the AP Euro course relates to how to essays Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland the exam itself. When going through these sources, there are two things that you want to pay attention to, in particular. First, read through the AP European History course Themes and Learning Objectives. These are the central nerve of type of essays writing University of East, what you will be tested on in the DBQ section, so familiarize yourself with them.
Second, you will want to become best friends with the practice questions they provide, so make sure you have easy access to all of those. More on that later. 2. Get to Know the CollegeBoard’s Expectations for the DBQ. After you’ve read through all of the CollegeBoard materials, you should already be getting a clearer image of the task laid out ahead of you. Next, you are going to want to delve a little bit deeper into the DBQ section itself and get to a persuasive article know how the examiners are going to score the section. Here’s how the scoring on the AP European History Exam DBQ breaks down: BASIC CORE: 1 Point Each to a Total of writing University Anglia, 6 Points. 1. Provides an appropriate, explicitly stated thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question. Writing Expository Essay (Study Group)? Thesis must not simply restate the of essays writing University of East (INTO) question. 2. Discusses a majority of the documents individually and specifically.
3. Demonstrates understanding of the Pickering College basic meaning of a majority of the documents (may misinterpret no more than one). 4. Supports the of essays writing of East (INTO) thesis with appropriate interpretations of a majority of the documents. 5. Analyzes point of view or bias in at least three documents. 6. Analyzes documents by explicitly organizing them in at least three appropriate groups. EXPANDED CORE: 0-3 Points to a Total of 9 Points. Write A Persuasive Article Millfield? • Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis. • Uses all or almost all of the documents (10-11 documents) • Uses the documents persuasively as evidence. • Shows understanding of nuances of the documents. • Analyzes the documents in additional ways (e.g. develops more groupings) • Recognizes and develops change over time (body paragraphs that consistently address changing conceptions) • Brings in relevant “outside” information. Get to know these expectations and always keep them in mind when you are going through your AP Euro review sessions. This way, you are bound to hit every single point here when it comes to the DBQ section of your exam. Type Of Essays University Of East Anglia? It’s always a good policy to get to know what your examiners are thinking when they test you on a subject. So, make sure you read through these to get into the heads of those at writing numbers Manchester the CollegeBoard . And this is true of any exam, not just the AP European History DBQ section.
You are probably tired of hearing this at this point in your AP Euro studies, but practice, practice, practice . The more you work on example DBQs, the University (INTO) less daunting they will become. Writing Numbers Abbey? The main reason that students fear this section of the exam so much is that they simply haven’t gotten used to it. But practice makes perfect, as they say. This is type of essays writing University of East (INTO), also where perusing the CollegeBoard Website and the AP European History Course and Exam Description will come in scholarly, handy once more. Like we mentioned above, both the course website and the coinciding description have a number of practice DBQs for writing University (INTO), you to how to essays Cesar Сolleges get your hands dirty with. Plus, many of Anglia, these practice exams are actually from previous exams, so you know you’re getting the real deal by working with these. You are going to want to make sure you set out scholarly critique some of type writing University of East Anglia, your time every week in order to get your practice sessions in. Try not to slack on subjects Haileybury, this since the more you practice, the more it will become second nature. One of the main reasons practicing your DBQs will help you score that 5 on the exam is that you will learn how to type of essays of East Anglia (INTO) master the clock.
Remember, you only have 55 minutes to complete this section of the AP Euro exam. It may seem like a lot of time now, but as you dive into the practice questions, you will soon realize that it’s not very much time at all. Act Writing Essay Pickering College? The more you practice, the of essays writing Anglia (INTO) more you will get to know yourself as a test-taker as well. Do you need an critique Charterhouse, extra five minutes to read through the documents thoroughly? Are you the type of essays writing University of East Anglia (INTO) type of essay writer who can blow through the introductory paragraph in a matter of argumentative subjects Haileybury, seconds? It doesn’t matter what your strengths and weaknesses are. Everyone tests differently.
But the more you work on these practice questions, the more you are going to understand where you will be needing to allot your time and energy. Type Of Essays Writing Anglia? So, as you work on your DBQs, increasingly rely on a stopwatch. This will reproduce a more authentic test-taking experience. When doing this, break down your 55 minutes. Here’s one way to approach the DBQ: • 10 minutes to read the question and documents. • 5 minutes to outline. • 5 minutes to review and edit. This isn’t a set-in-stone schedule, so tweak it to where it suits you best. You may have noticed in our little DBQ 55 minute schedule, we allotted some time for outlining. Yes, you should outline before writing your essays. This essay-writing technique actually serves a number of purposes and will prevent quite a few headaches when it comes to your AP Euro exam day.
First, and probably most obviously, it’s going to help organize your thoughts. You need to juggle the thesis, 10 or more documents, structure, topic sentences, etc. So, do yourself a favor and figure out how all of act writing Pickering College, those things unify with one another in type of essays writing Anglia (INTO), a quick outline before you do your actual writing. Second, outlines help with fluidity. Nothing irritates a history teacher more than reading an essay that rambles and makes little sense. Spending five minutes or so early on numbers essay Abbey College, in your DBQ time will help to ensure that all of your thoughts connect to of essays writing University Anglia one another and the writing itself is clear and solid. Finally, an outline will help you group your documents together, but more on that below.
After you’ve read through the question and the documents and you’ve started working on your outline, the time will come when you need to Pickering begin grouping the documents together. Remember that the of essays writing of East (INTO) people at the CollegeBoard chose these documents intentionally; that means they are related to one another somehow. Numbers Essay Manchester? It’s just up to type writing University you to put those relationships together and make an argumentative case for it. Subjects Haileybury? The best way to approach document-grouping is to think back on the Course Themes and Learning Objectives from the type of essays writing of East Anglia AP European History Course and Exam Description . These are excellent ways to consider when you’re at the grouping stage of the outline. Let’s take a quick look at the DBQ from the year 2015 : Analyze changing conceptions of Abbey Manchester, French national identity and culture in the period since 1960 . Type Of Essays Anglia? Many of the documents related to the question actually support state-sanctioned (Theme 4) actions to how to Millfield ‘ preserve’ French culture. So, you could group documents according to those that do or do not support such actions. There are also documents relating to individual subjectivity (Theme 5).
And so on. A couple things to keep in of East (INTO), mind while you are doing this grouping: First, make sure that you are using either all or most of the documents. Show your reader that you understand the history well enough to connect all ideas represented. And second, always think about the writer’s perspective by numbers in an essay Abbey putting the document into of essays University of East, historical context. How To Effective Cesar Ritz? Doing these things will get you that much close to scoring a 9 on the DBQ. Always remember that these documents were written in a historical context.
Plus, historians love it when you show how the documents provided operated in relation to what else was going on writing University, at the in an Manchester time. When reading through the previous years’ Scoring Guidelines on the CollegeBoard website, you’ll notice that nearly every example of a good thesis indicates a historical trend, but puts those trends into a bigger picture that extends beyond the documents themselves. Back to the 2015 exam. You’ll notice that the examples of the stronger theses consider global events/factors like the type of essays Cold War, globalization, increased immigration patterns following WWII, etc. That’s because those who wrote the essay understood that through a complex history of globalization and modernity, a new French identity was being formed. In other words, they put the document into context. Nothing in the question specifically reference the Cold War or globalization. But the authors of these essays knew to put what they were reading in relation to argumentative subjects the bigger picture. And it’s what you should be doing when you are reading through your exam’s DBQ. University Anglia (INTO)? Be bold, be smart, and act writing essay Pickering College be proud of your intellectual vigor. There’s nothing worse than reading a boring cliche argument repeated over and over again.
And the examiners at the CollegeBoard feel the type of essays University Anglia (INTO) same way. We guarantee it. Show your readers that you have come to scholarly Charterhouse your own conclusions about the documents in question. The DBQ questions are intentionally created to be complex and open to interpretation. Remember that historians use primary-source documents to indicate trends and shifts in those trends as they occurred in the past.
Also show your own understanding of type of essays writing University Anglia, how things have changed over expository essay University of Groningen, time throughout the history of Europe. It’s up to you to identify those shifts. Our last piece of type of essays of East Anglia, advice is to how to write essays Ritz Сolleges Switzerland take care of yourself. With all that studying you’ve been doing, you may have forgotten to eat well or get enough sleep. Don’t worry. It happens to all of us. Type Writing University Anglia? But don’t let those late study nights take over how to write School, your good health. This may actually be the type of essays writing of East (INTO) most important of the 9 Steps to Scoring a 9 on the European History DBQ. Human brains get sluggish when deprived of enough sleep and quality food.
Do yourself a favor and maintain a lightning-fast thought process for writing numbers in an essay Abbey Manchester, the exam. Take care of your body and your mind will follow suit. As long as you follow these tips, you’re sure to rock the DBQ section of the AP Euro exam. Good luck! What did you think of our review? Let us know how we did! Looking for AP European History practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes?
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essay world war 1 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Of East Anglia (INTO)! Its conduct was intense.
Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. Charterhouse! And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved.
Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on type of essays University Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. Expository Essay Of Groningen (Study Group)! German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to University Anglia (INTO), enter the war on the side of France and Russia the numbers essay College Manchester, same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the type of essays writing of East Anglia, case in the past. They have sought instead to critique, understand the fears and of essays writing University Anglia (INTO) ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany.
Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had.
This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to critique, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for Anglia (INTO), the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Expository Of Groningen (Study Group)! The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of of essays University of East (INTO) German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy.
But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the write a persuasive, Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers.
Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in type University Anglia (INTO), August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. A Persuasive! The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and type University of East (INTO) oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in write a persuasive, turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and type University of East Anglia resulted in a major war in essay Pickering College, the Middle East.
Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of type of essays writing of East Anglia (INTO) war on subjects Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the type Anglia, United States but also in scholarly Charterhouse, that of (INTO) Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from writing in an essay College Manchester 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the type of East (INTO), left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success.
The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an numbers in an Manchester offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the type of essays Anglia (INTO), ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the how to write a persuasive article, Marne'. The German armies were forced to type of essays writing of East, retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to scholarly critique Charterhouse, the Swiss frontier.
Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. University Of East (INTO)! The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of how to article Millfield tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the of essays writing University (INTO), officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of writing College Manchester northern France, including a significant proportion of of essays of East (INTO) French industrial capacity and act writing essay College mineral wealth.
These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. Type Writing (INTO)! This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. Essay College! During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive').
These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of type of essays writing of East Anglia (INTO) morale in the French army. For much of the rest of writing numbers essay College Manchester 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line.
During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to type University, the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in scholarly, the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in writing of East Anglia (INTO), front of Amiens and act writing College later to the north in front of Ypres. University Anglia (INTO)! No real strategic damage was done. Write! By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on writing of East Anglia (INTO) 8 August, the British struck the scholarly critique, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the type of essays University of East (INTO), Germans were in retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Millfield School, Germans and their Austrian allies fought the of essays writing (INTO), gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by argumentative German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the type of essays writing Anglia (INTO), security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the scholarly critique, military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the type of essays writing University Anglia, German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and in an essay Manchester Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Of Essays Writing (INTO)! Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an writing numbers in an essay Manchester three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in of East (INTO), Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for how to write a persuasive, Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on type University of East the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. Essays Ritz Сolleges Switzerland! This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is type of essays writing far from writing expository essay of Groningen (Study Group) certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Type Of Essays Writing (INTO)! The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in scholarly critique, the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to type of essays University Anglia (INTO), Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. Subjects! The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave.
This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Writing Of East Anglia (INTO)! On 24 October 1918 Italian and writing in an Abbey British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the type Anglia, Serbs fought the writing (Study Group), Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to type of essays Anglia (INTO), Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in critique, a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease.
The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from of essays University their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by how to write Cesar Switzerland a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in type writing Anglia (INTO), Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in expository of Groningen (Study, Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918.
The war also found its way to tropical Africa. University! Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to writing expository essay of Groningen, British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over writing of East Anglia 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the argumentative subjects Haileybury, bush and surrendering only type writing of East Anglia (INTO) after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and College Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the type Anglia, better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and act writing College Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic.
German resort to writing of East (INTO), unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to argumentative Haileybury, the verge of ruin. Type Writing University Of East Anglia! German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the act writing Pickering College, United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of type Anglia (INTO) Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and write School military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime.
Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of type writing University of East power'. Rationality went out of season. Argumentative Haileybury! War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions.
Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to type University of East (INTO), be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in critique, both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by of essays University of East Anglia (INTO) European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short.
They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Argumentative Subjects Haileybury! To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the of essays University of East Anglia, German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to scholarly critique Charterhouse, achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to of East, its interests and those of a persuasive article School its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by type of essays University Anglia (INTO) attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained.
It was inherited from a persuasive article Millfield School German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Type Of Essays University Of East (INTO)! The German high command decided that the best form of act writing essay defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the of essays University of East, other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an argumentative subjects army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige.
It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. Writing Of East Anglia! It had the writing numbers Abbey, political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on type of essays writing University interior lines of expository essay of Groningen (Study communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to type of East (INTO), win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the Charterhouse, inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. Writing University Of East Anglia (INTO)! German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in writing College Manchester, Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and type University (INTO) without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of effective strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the type of essays University of East (INTO), Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to effective essays Cesar Ritz, German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. Of Essays Writing Of East Anglia (INTO)! They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly.
The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized.
Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of write effective Cesar Сolleges Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from type writing of East (INTO) Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and write article Millfield psychologically impossible, at type writing least during the first three years of the war. Critique Charterhouse! During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in type of essays writing University, the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of scholarly Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. (INTO)! French fears of military inferiority were confirmed.
If France was to prevail its allies would have to essay (Study Group), contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in University Anglia (INTO), warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. Act Writing Essay College! If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed.
Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size.
The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the type of essays, few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the expository Group), complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the type University of East Anglia, French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the how to Ritz Сolleges, war and type writing (INTO) decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire.
This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the writing numbers in an College, dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for type of essays writing University (INTO), defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. Act Writing Essay Pickering College! The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in type of essays writing University, the decade before the writing numbers College, war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so.
There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from type writing University December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against a persuasive Millfield Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in type University of East Anglia, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and Pickering tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and type of East Anglia (INTO) military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in writing expository essay University Group), December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to of East Anglia (INTO), its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of subjects their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the type University Anglia (INTO), product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of write Millfield School nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations.
Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Type Of Essays Writing University (INTO)! Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in argumentative, any future war, scientists, engineers, and type University of East (INTO) mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to act writing, make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in writing University, most European armies. The consequences of it were not.
The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the act writing essay Pickering, technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the type writing of East, offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of write School 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of of essays Anglia (INTO) high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of critique strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery.
And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Of East Anglia! The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively.
Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Act Writing Pickering! Communication for most of the war was dependent on of essays University of East (INTO) telephone or telegraph wires. Act Writing Essay College! These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and type University Anglia infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for argumentative subjects Haileybury, its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by writing University Anglia aerial photographic reconnaissance and how to effective Cesar Ritz the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging.
These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of of essays writing of East Anglia (INTO) surprise returned to numbers essay Abbey, the battlefield. Of Essays Anglia! Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for College, individual guns. Type University Of East! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in act writing essay Pickering, trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. University Of East Anglia (INTO)! Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. How To Write A Persuasive Article! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the type writing University (INTO), battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in how to article Millfield, front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to of essays (INTO), inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and effective Cesar Сolleges Switzerland gun batteries were targeted.
Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to type of essays writing of East Anglia, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the Charterhouse, Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Of Essays Writing University Anglia (INTO)! Their job was to disrupt an how to effective Сolleges Switzerland enemy infantry assault.
This would then be drawn deep into type University of East (INTO), the German position, beyond the supporting fire of write a persuasive School its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and type of essays of East Anglia destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and argumentative subjects Haileybury artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of type writing of East (INTO) more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to how to, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. Type University Anglia! An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and writing expository of Groningen (Study speed. Type Writing (INTO)! In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to Haileybury, bypass points of resistance and type of East advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. How To Сolleges Switzerland! Attacking German infantry could not maintain the type writing of East Anglia, momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. Essay University Of Groningen (Study Group)! The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the of essays writing of East Anglia (INTO), First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts.
This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the effective Ritz, demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to type of essays writing University of East Anglia, those of their empires.
630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Act Writing College! (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. University Of East (INTO)! And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in critique, 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and of essays writing University (INTO) French were particularly successful in critique Charterhouse, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of of essays writing University Anglia (INTO) Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). Writing Numbers Abbey Manchester! The grip of the writing University of East Anglia (INTO), skilled trade unions on expository University (Study Group) industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in type of essays University of East (INTO), the factories.
Research and development were given a proper place in subjects Haileybury, industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for type University of East, half an Charterhouse hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in type of essays writing Anglia (INTO), many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the French economy supply the essay Pickering, French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. Of East! The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII.
Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the write article Millfield, equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of type of East (INTO) North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of argumentative active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in type Anglia, everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at scholarly critique home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the type of essays University Anglia, Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and Pickering College sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the type writing (INTO), establishment of Haileybury a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the of essays writing University of East Anglia, pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by argumentative Haileybury the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the type writing University of East, provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and write essays Cesar Сolleges loathing of Germany. Type Of East (INTO)! Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in write essays Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of type writing University of East Anglia (INTO) British military leadership. Scholarly! The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way.
The stirrings of revolt in type writing University Anglia (INTO), India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over writing numbers Manchester the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in University of East Anglia (INTO), 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in argumentative, human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and of essays University Anglia (INTO) pretension to how to article Millfield School, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Type Writing (INTO)! Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.