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AP Biology Lab Report for Population Genetics and Microbiology Essay Sample. The study of microevolution was tested in this laboratory experiment through the examination, observation, and analysis of various population conditions, some under the Hardy-Weinberg Theory of Genetic Equilibrium, which would advance the student scientists#8217; understanding of both microevolution and the mathematical aspects of microevolution known as population genetics. The students first predicted the result of each of the 6 cases. The data was found using a program called PopCycle (Herron 2002), which picked genotypes randomly, and showed the results after particular conditions were entered. Personal Writing Auston! Students took these numbers and visually displayed them in charts. They configured the predicted amount of adults for each genotype by technology essay writing College using the Hardy-Weinberg mathematical equation p2 + 2pq + q2 to figure out the expected adults for the genotypes AA, Aa, and aa. The students also produced graphs showing allelic frequencies and genotype frequencies.
They concluded that their original hypotheses were indeed correct. Therefore, there was support that the Hardy-Weinberg Theory and the 5 cases for evolution were indeed accurate in their own particular cases (170 words). In this report, students conduct a laboratory procedure that exemplifies certain occurrences of genetics among populations. In other words, the students predict and observe the results in Institute, a population from generation-to-generation due to certain specific conditions, also known as a study called microevolution (Pearson Education, Inc. Is Coursework Or Two St. Clair! 2002). In some cases, evidence supports evolution.
Evolution is defined as the essay Auston Institute, changes that have transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today (Pearson Education, Inc. 2002). There are five known cases for evolution, known as selection, migration, non-random mating, genetic drift, and mutations. Technology Essay Queen's! Selection is best described by the alteration of survival rates. For example, if a specific genotype (eg.
AA, or homozygous dominant) is lethal, there will be no (0) adults in the population. Or perhaps there are limiting factors that limit a particular genotype to 50%, that case too is also selection. Migration is also known as gene flow. When members of a population migrate or move away from their habitat, various genes enter different communities and other populations. Migration rates are originally 100% if there is no net movement. Non-random mating means that mates are selected individually, and that perhaps two organisms mate so that their offspring will have beneficial features, also changing the species#8217; possible features. Genetic drift occurs in small populations, and it is the change of the population#8217;s gene pool due to chance (Pearson Education, Inc. 2002). Due to small numbers in the population, results are inconsistent and therefore change is frequent. Personal Institute Of Management! Lastly, mutations are a case for evolution in how to essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, that the personal essay of Management, rare changes in DNA cause genetic diversity (Pearson Education, Inc.
2002). One of the reoccurring themes in technology essay Queen's, the laboratory procedure is the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Theory. Under this theory by these two popular scientists, they stated that gene pool frequencies are inherently stable, but that evolution should be expected in all populations all the time; they resolved this apparent paradox by analyzing the probable net effects of evolutionary mechanisms (O#8217;Neil 2002). The particular conditions that had to exist for essay writing Auston Institute, this to apply were that the population had no mutation, had no natural selection, was a large population, had only random mating, and had no migration. For the cases to is coursework or two College, follow later in the lab, Cases 1 and 2 exemplify Hardy-Weinberg conditions.
All of the others either have selection or not enough members in the population, which will be the most-closely observed conditions. Personal Essay Auston Of Management! In this lab, there are also mathematical aspects. Population genetics is known as the branch of biology that provides the mathematical structure for the study of the process of microevolution (Wikipedia 2004). An equation exists under the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Theory. The equation (p2 + 2pq + q2) helps to Xi’an University, determine the personal essay Auston, predicted amount of adults of a particular genotype under particular conditions. Coursework Assessment Kensington Park School! In the equation, p represents the dominant allele, noted by writing Auston a capital letter, A for instance. Also, q in the equation represents the recessive allele, noted by a lowercase letter. Assessment Park School! And, as suspected, pq represents heterozygous. The equation was derived from when two alleles come to produce a genotype from p and q (UVa 1996). Since the allele frequencies must add up to 1, q must equal 1 p and essay writing Institute of Management p must equal 1 q. Therefore an individual is represented by technology essay writing Queen's College p + q, and the offspring could be found by (p + q)2, which comes out to p2 + 2pq + q2 (UVa 1996).
Essentially, the Institute, allele frequencies could be multiplied by essay Brooke House 100% to find the chance that that particular allele will show up in essay writing, the next generation, given that the conditions are of Hardy-Weinberg. The students next hypothesized what would happen in freelance article writing online The Baptist, the 6 cases that follows. They concluded that Case 1 was the control group and that there would only be small fluctuations in the allele frequencies. This is supported best by the fact that the conditions are under those described by writing Auston Hardy and Weinberg. In Case 2, the students also hypothesized that there would be a small fluctuation in the allele frequencies, however they were different numbers due to the initial allele A frequency change. In Case 3, with the addition of selection, the students hypothesized that there would be no (0) adults with genotype aa, and that therefore, the allele frequencies would have greater fluctuations. In Case 4, the students hypothesized that due to the selection rates, there would ultimately be a heterozygote advantage.
They believed that all homozygous recessive genotypes would be lethal and that all homozygous dominant genotypes would have a 50% survival rate. An Argument Jiaotong-Liverpool University! Therefore, there were reasonable fluctuations in the allele frequencies, and the heterozygote had the advantage. In Case 5, the students predicted that genetic drift would prevail. Due to a small population, one small change in the population would bring a great change in the allele frequencies. In Case 6, given the original conditions that the initial value of A is 0.5 and the survival rates of personal essay, all genotypes is 0.5, the students hypothesized that essentially only how to an argument essay Jiaotong-Liverpool 50% of the population would survive, while the essay Auston of Management, allele frequencies were rather consistent. Internet Access or PopCycle v1.0 program (Cited John C. Herron ©2002) Methods below apply to all 6 cases in Table I below.
The particular settings such as the intial value for allele A#8217;s frequency, mutation rates, survival rates, and assessment Kensington School migration rates must be set to personal of Management, the required value before doing the methods listed below. Technology Writing Queen's! Case # Initial A Rates of Survival Migration Mutation Amt of Gen Zygotes. 1 0.5 ALL 1.0 ALL 0 ALL 0 5 u100. 2 0.9 ALL 1.0 ALL 0 ALL 0 5 u100. 3 0.5 AA=1 Aa=1 aa=0 ALL 0 ALL 0 5 u100. 4 0.5 AA=0.5 Aa=1 aa=0 ALL 0 ALL 0 10 u100. 5 0.5 ALL 1.0 ALL 0 ALL 0 5 10 exact.
6 0.5 ALL 0.5 ALL 0 ALL 0 5 u100. 1. Using their knowledge of writing Auston, population genetics, students predicted the change in allelic frequency over time in jobs John The Baptist High School, each of the personal essay of Management, simulations and word as a hypothesis (If#8230;then). 2. Randomly click in the Gene Pool area of PopCycle until the number of zygotes required is met. 3. Click DONE in all categories of the window except the last one. 4. Record the number of Park, adults of each genotype in essay writing Auston of Management, your data table under the column Experimental. One Word Or Two College! 5. Click DONE on the last category. 6. Record the ending allele frequency in the data table. 7. Using the Hardy-Weinberg Equation, calculate the expected (or hypothesized) number of adults for each genotype in each generation. Writing Institute! The charts below represent the quantitative results for the 6 cases.
Case 1 was more of a control group, in that all the settings for it were standard for Hardy-Weinberg conditions. Personal Essay Brooke House! As noticed in the Frequencies, there were only small fluctuations between the original 0.5 allele A frequency. Case 2 was just like Case 1 except the original allele A frequency is different. It is personal writing Auston of Management set to something other than 0.5, or 0.9 here. As noticed in the numerical data below, it too only had small fluctuations. How To Write An Argument Essay! In both Case 1 and essay Auston Institute of Management Case 2, there is no selection; any deviations in technology Queen's, data are due to genetic drift.
In Case 3, the survival rates were brought into effect, eliminating the existence of a Hardy-Weinberg situation. The homozygous recessive genotype is personal essay writing made lethal; therefore no adults are listed in write an argument Jiaotong-Liverpool, the chart for this case. Essay Auston Institute Of Management! Due to the use of Hardy-Weinberg equation without the actual conditions, there are larger fluctuations in the allele frequencies. This case demonstrates selection. In Case 4, the survival rates are changed again, this time giving the technology essay writing College, homozygous dominant genotype 50% chance of survival. There are large fluctuations again, as for the same reasons listed in Case 3. Case 4 demonstrates the heterozygote advantage. Case 5 is different in that the essay writing Auston Institute, number of zygotes is lessened, therefore providing less accurate results and demonstrating genetic drift. There are few fluctuations in this case, but when there is how to an argument Jiaotong-Liverpool University a fluctuation, it#8217;s a large change. Case 6 is the made-up one, which in this case sets all survival rates to 0.5. As a result, half the population of the adults is eliminated, and there are only small fluctuations in the ending allele frequencies. Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for Aa Genotype for aa Ending Freq.
Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. 1 100 25 28 50 49 25 23 .53 .47. 2 100 28 38 50 41 22 21 .59 .41. 3 100 35 31 48 52 17 17 .57 .43. 4 100 33 34 49 49 19 17 .59 .41. 5 101 35 35 49 46 17 20 .57 .43. Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for Aa Genotype for aa Ending Freq.
Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. Personal Essay Writing Institute! 1 100 81 77 18 21 1 2 .88 .12. 2 100 77 79 21 20 1 1 .89 .11. 3 100 79 77 20 22 1 1 .88 .12. 4 100 77 78 21 21 1 1 .89 .11. 5 100 79 77 20 21 1 2 .88 .12. Table III-Case 2. Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for how to essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Aa Genotype for aa Ending Freq. Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. 1 75 19 36 38 39 19 0 .74 26.
2 96 53 61 37 35 6 0 .82 .18. 3 95 64 69 28 26 3 0 .86 .14. 4 99 73 82 24 17 2 0 .91 .09. Personal Writing Of Management! 5 99 82 85 16 14 1 0 .93 .07. Freelance Jobs Online Saint John! Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for Aa Genotype for writing Auston Institute, aa Ending Freq. Coursework Kensington Park School! Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. Personal Writing! 1 69 17 11 35 58 17 0 .58 .42. 2 67 23 16 33 51 12 0 .62 .38. 3 74 28 19 35 55 11 0 .63 .37.
4 67 27 23 31 44 9 0 .67 .33. 5 62 28 23 27 39 7 0 .69 .31. 6 66 31 24 28 42 6 0 .68 .32. Coursework Assessment Park School! 7 72 33 22 31 50 7 0 .65 .35. 8 70 30 23 32 47 9 0 .66 .34. 9 67 29 22 30 45 8 0 .66 .34.
10 63 27 26 28 37 7 0 .71 .39. Essay Auston Of Management! Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for Aa Genotype for aa Ending Freq. Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. 1 10 2/3 2 5 6 2/3 2 .5 .5. 2 10 2/3 2 5 5 2/3 3 .45 .55. 3 10 2 1 5 5 3 4 .35 .65. 4 10 1 1 5 5 4 4 .35 .65. 5 10 1 1 5 2 4 7 .2 .8. Gen Total Adults Genotype for AA Genotype for Aa Genotype for aa Ending Freq.
Pred Expect Pred Expect Pred Expect A a. Writing College! 1 51 13 8 25 28 13 15 .43 .57. 2 50 9 6 25 25 16 19 .37 .63. 3 51 7 6 24 24 20 21 .35 .65. 4 50 6 7 23 20 21 23 .34 .66. 5 51 6 9 23 21 22 21 .38 .62. Table VIICase 6. Additionally, there are graphs attached at the end of the Auston, lab report. The first six graphs show the trend of the allele A frequency over generations. Queen's! Keep in personal essay writing Institute of Management, mind that the allele a frequency line would be opposite write an argument of the line shown, for writing, there is no need to show the line. The value for the allele a can be found by coursework assessment Park doing 1 . Personal Essay Writing Institute! The next set of 6 graphs shows the genotype frequencies at article Saint John Diocesan High, the first and last generation of the particular population. All hypotheses are evidently supported in the results.
In Case 1, the personal writing Institute, students hypothesized that only write for me School little or no fluctuations in the allele frequencies would result. Personal Essay Writing Institute Of Management! The original proportions for each genotype, as derived from the Hardy-Weinberg equation, are 1:2:1 to the genotypes AA:Aa:aa, respectively. How To! Therefore, the students#8217; hypothesis was indeed correct. In Case 2, the essay Auston Institute of Management, students predicted almost the same thing, saying that the frequency values would just not be around 0.5, but rather around the figure that the student selected as the initial allele A value. Therefore, the students accurately predicted the results for the case. In Case 3, the students concluded that the homozygous recessive genotype was lethal and found this to be supported by the data. Writing Personal Brooke College! They predicted this would create a large fluctuation in the allele frequencies, and personal essay writing Auston Institute of Management it indeed did.
In Case 4, the students hypothesized that in Jiaotong-Liverpool University, addition to the lethal homozygous recessive genotype, the homozygous dominant genotypes would have a 50% survival rate, eliminating half of them. This, the students noted, would create an even large change in the ending allele frequencies. Since the heterozygous genotype was favored, the students noted it as having stabilizing selection. In Case 5, the students hypothesized that, due to a small population, there would be greater changes in the alleles because there are less chances of probability. For instance, if one flips a coin twice and gets heads both times, it does not mean that the coin is only heads on both sides.
If they were to flip a coin 200 times, they would find that it would create an even 1:1 ratio. In Case 6, the personal essay Auston, students hypothesized that, due to the 50% survival rates in all genotypes, half the population would be eliminated. Writing Personal Essay Brooke House College! This hypothesis was supported in that each time either 50 or 51 adults survived out of 100. Essay Writing Auston Institute! The cases most effectively exemplified each of the following listed below: Case # Overall Result. Essay House! 1 No Selection; considered the control group. 2 No selection; different initial allele freq. 3 Selection in lethal dominant recessive allele (aa) 4 Heterozygous advantage (stabilizing selection) 5 Genetic Drift due to personal writing Auston of Management, small population. Write! 6 50% survival rate for all genotypes in population. Writing! In this laboratory experiment, students have learned very much, extending their knowledge especially on genetics.
In the essay College, field of microevolution, the students observed various cases after hypothesizing what they think would happen. They found that they were right the Auston Institute, entire time on all their hypotheses. The lab helped them to understand the technology essay writing Queen's, Hardy-Weinberg Theory and their mathematical equation [p2 + 2pq + q2], which are crucial parts to understanding population genetics. The lab was an excellent opportunity for the students to extend their knowledge on an issue that is addressed continually over and over. Auston! They have been provided with a valid argument for evolution, although it does not mean they must support it. It is technology essay writing best in today to be most informed with current issues, so not only was the lab an opportunity for students to understand microevolution and population genetics, but it also helped them to understand the argument for evolution when considering genetic variation causes. Pearson Education, Inc.
Campbell Biology. Personal Essay Institute! © 2002. Date of Access: 01/18/2005. URL: www.biology.com/ UVa (University of Virginia). Hardy Weinberg Equation of Population Genetics. Essay Brooke House College! ©1996. Date of Access: 01/18/2005. Personal Essay Writing Institute Of Management! Wikipedia.
Microevolution. ©2002. Date of personal Brooke House College, Access: 01/18/2005. URL: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microevolution. O#8217;Neil. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Model. ©2002. Date of Access: 01/18/2005. URL: http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/synth_2.htm. Personal Essay Writing Institute! Herron.
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Young Persons' Self Reflections On Childhood: A Journey in Enlightenment. There seems to be a great deal of personal Auston Institute, contradiction and variation in society as to the specific rights of young people , such as; the technology essay writing Queen's, age of consent for sex, ages of accountability, and the differing legal ages applied to the purchase of various goods. Therefore it is difficult to say where the lines of childhood and adulthood might merge. It is now well established that children have the right to be heard, as many laws have been implemented in personal essay writing of Management recent years to technology writing College protect the rights of children. Personal Essay Auston. Such as, the Children Act of 1989 , the 1989 United Nations Convention on my coursework for me The Windsor the Rights of the Child and essay writing of Management, the, ‘Gillick competence’ 1986, which established children under the age of 16 were able to consent to medical treatment without parental knowledge or consent if deemed competent enough to make that decision. There is not one specific transitional process that launches young people into an argument Jiaotong-Liverpool University adulthood; however it is the writing of Management, confusion about this important process that requires reflection and understanding from those who are at the centre of it. As Alderson (2004, p101) describes, 'It is as if we put children into a small glass cage called childhood, and then examine how they perform within the cage's restriction, instead of is coursework St. Clair College, looking critically at the cage itself, its causes and effects.' It is therefore the young people themselves that are the best source of information through their narratives and constructions of childhood , 'Children are the writing Institute of Management, best resource for understanding childhood' (Corsaro, 1997:103). There are problems that exist in coursework assessment Park School recognising young people as 'knowing subjects' and acknowledging their competence with the personal essay writing, need to ensure their protection. The understanding of children's perspectives is personal essay Brooke House College important as these will differ from the accounts that are based on what adults believe children think. Personal Essay Writing Auston. As Harding (1996) says, 'actual individual children and their lives, feelings and experiences are one thing, while (adult) concepts, constructions, representations, perceptions, attitudes, indeed stereotypes, concerning childhood (and its different-ness) are another.'
There has been much media interest and essay College, policy decisions made which have been centred on and around children and of Management, young people, particularly during this century (Narvanen Nasman, 2004, Lloyd-Smith, M. and Tarr, J. 2000). It would be expected that from this we would be getting greater understanding and clarity, however it seems to have further merged the essay College, boundaries and confused the personal writing of Management, categories. The basic definition and category of childhood has not been established or even agreed, and the processes that shape children in preparation for adulthood are not defined. This may be because clarification of childhood as a definite stage of development is not possible. (Hallet, C Prout, A. 2003). This research is primarily concentrating on the personal constructs and individual accounts of young people's views and reflections on their own childhood, if indeed that is how they choose to define them. Coursework Assessment Kensington Park School. The research investigates how children perceive and construct their place within society, because as adults we seem to construct childhood as a separate and distinctive entity to adulthood (James Prout 1997). Yet as Prout (2003) states, there is also the emergence of personal essay of Management, recognition that children and adults are bound by a mutual interdependence, and we are beginning to appreciate the contribution that children make in both the social and economic areas, 'Whatever the level of investment society makes, without the active participation of children there will be no social future.' (Prout, 2003. P20).
Social Constructionism. Burr (1995) identifies a key number of strategies that helps to explain the theory of childhood as being a social construction. Firstly a, 'critical stance towards taken-for-granted knowledge', in which we take a critical stance on the traditionally defined theories by questioning them. Secondly, 'Historical and cultural specificity', meaning we need to is coursework one word St. Clair make sense of current experience and issues by using social, historical and cultural relativity. Thirdly that 'knowledge is sustained by essay Auston, social processes'; explains the way in which we view the is coursework one word or two St. Clair College, world is shaped by meanings we attach to the interactions between the people we encounter. Lastly that 'knowledge and social action go together', this perspective allows us to look at accountability and who is ultimately responsible for personal writing Auston of Management, the perception, society or the individual. Prout, (2003), asserts that the most adequate way of representing childhood is by assessment Kensington Park School, viewing young people as social persons, he does this in order to understand their positions from within contemporary society.
Structuring of the childhood experience is represented in 'stages and scripts' that are responsible for generating the essential questions about their environments. One stage of life is personal Auston Institute of Management childhood, and we see it as a natural stage of development. It is however not simply a biological stage of development, but an emergence of attitudes, beliefs and values that surround the individual child at freelance Saint The Baptist High, particular points in time. As such it can be defined as a fluid social category, this is not fixed and it is personal writing Auston of Management subject to the changing values, definitions and expectations we have within society and coursework assessment School, most importantly the individual perceptions and internalisations young people make of these societal boundaries (Valentine, 2000). It is not only that there is internal confusion created by personal essay of Management, the changing hormonal balances, but also various other internal conflicts which are a direct reflection of the intricate dimensions in the process of 'growing up'.
Narvanen Nasman (2004) discuss childhood as a social construction in relation to the generational perspective in which, Children and teenagers are also seen as actors who interpret their world, reflect, and create meaning; they are actors involved in constructing their own lives and influencing their own conditions. That is, the personal House, meaning of 'child' as a social position is personal writing Auston Institute understood in relation to writing personal essay Brooke the other positions in relation to which it is defined - those of personal writing Auston, parent and adult. Therefore the focus is on the construction of these relationships and freelance jobs online John Diocesan, how the people in those positions relate to one another, (Narvanen Nasman, 2004, pp.72) It is the social conditions that surround a young person in society that are related to the way adulthood is perceived by society; conversely this position is related to the treatment of young people, (Young, 1995: 121). The Social Construction of Childhood. Aries (1962) argues that childhood is not a biologically determined stage but rather a socially imposed stage. He defined childhood as a category that was applied as a concept in society during the 16th Century, prior to that they were seen as being small adults who were capable of, and indeed made to participate fully in adult life. Aries' (1962) view is personal Auston of Management that childhood is a new concept that did not exist within the medieval period. Writing Essay Brooke House. Childhood he claims began in the 16th and 17th centuries in the upper classes, the personal writing Institute of Management, concept then gained strength until it permeated all levels of society however it was not until later on in the 19th and early 20th century that it was accepted by the lower classes. On the emergence of the institution of childhood, the young people's situation within society began to change, they were 'named' children and innocence was born. Children began to be protected from the reality of the my coursework, world and its events The setting of legal ages for consents, for sex, the sale of alcohol, the essay Auston Institute, statutory attendance of schools and voting rights, thus making age the prominent marker and focus for maturity, (Hewstone, Wolfgang and Stephenson, 1996). Essay House College. In another theory, Muller's (1973) conception of of Management, childhood is structured using four phases that are demarcated by trends in how to write Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool birth and death rates.
Phase one explains that children are a, 'necessary evil' until they reached adolescence when they became a financial bonus to the family as they could be put to work. In phase two children became, 'productive workers', who were 'cheap and plentiful' and could do the jobs which adults could not, like crawling under machines to personal fix them to. In phase three children 'assumed central importance within the family', these ideas also began to filter through to the lower and middle class boundaries. Phase four explains that society is 'child centred' where by the main goal of society is the care, respect and understanding of the article jobs online Saint John Diocesan, child's needs rather than those of the parents (Lambert, 1996). These are marked by the 1959 United Nation's Declaration of the personal Auston Institute of Management, Rights of the assessment Kensington, Child, and the National Children's Bureau publications on Child Protection Policies and Guidelines For Research.
As the exposure to different social groupings affects and shapes ' childhood ' so to does the interactions of peers and other members of the groups, both positive and negative in nature. Berger and Luckmann (1967) state that the social construction of childhood expressed by a young person will be that daily realities will exist outside of them and operate independently of the young person, there by reflecting the view that they are not in control of their world, and merely just a player in writing Auston the grander scheme of things. How young people relate to each other and different members of society requires the writing personal essay College, ongoing negotiation of these social constructs. Social constructionism implies that the knowing is linked to doing and that the interaction between understanding and social action is symbiotic (Burr 1995). How we talk and the language that is used is a basis for our thoughts, actions and how we think (Burr 1995: Gergen and Gergen, 2003; Potter and Wetherell, 1987). There is much debate on essay writing of Management the construct of childhood; James Prout (1997) claim that it is, 'cultures which children construct for and between themselves', where as Hendrick (1990) cites it as being in opposition and that, 'childhood - both the institution and the construction of - was composed by adults.' (James Prout, 1997, pp34). With adults having such opposing views on childhood , there is little wonder at the conflict that surrounds young people during this transitional period.
Added into this there is then the Kensington Park, societal perception of childhood and adulthood. In society young people are being judged on maturity by various age related categories, restrictions and issues; for example at sixteen you can have sex, get married (with permission), have a baby, be able to smoke, and yet you have to wait a further two years until you are allowed to drink or be allowed to vote. It is therefore important to focus on the young person's relationship with the social world and examine the complex sets of social processes that they go through to essay Auston of Management become constructed as 'children' while other people are constructed as 'adults'. To define the social construction of childhood we must first explore the many social areas that children are exposed to, which may influence and enrich their worlds. Such areas as, home, school, clubs, friendships, hobbies, and groups all provide diverse influences on young people and help shape how they construct experiences into scripts that make sense to St. Clair them. Identity. There have been many studies concentrating on the development and the origins of self and identity but these have tended to focus in on personal Auston the 'personal-self', and largely neglected has been the 'social- self', (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934). It could be that there are as Lloyd-Smith and Tarr (2000) point out, some powerful social and cultural constraints that act as the boundaries and guidelines of write my coursework for me The Windsor, childhood, and they view childhood as specifically being a social construction. A social construction that shapes us as unique individuals, through a process of socialization, which in turn allows us to feel part of the community. Social identity is, therefore, complex, fragmentary and achieved by taking up discursively constructed subject position - as 'adult', 'child', (Valentine 2000, p265). It is also assumed that a young person's conceptualisations of their identities are likely to be quite limited, (Bennett 2004) and that in particular 'subjective identification' with social groups may be quite a late achievement, (Bennett et al., 1998).
Identity formation of young children, it is claimed, develops through a process where by they adopt an, 'ideological stance juxtaposed to that of their parents', (Knafo Schwartz, 2004). There are claims that only two processes that are central to essay writing Auston identity formation, exploration and Kensington School, commitment. Exploration, 'entails seeking out, elaborating, and utilizing potential identity alternatives', and commitment, 'entails the decision to accept particular alternatives as part of the self, and personal essay of Management, the outcome of commitment is to achieve enduring self-orientations in various life domains.' (Marcia,1980). The research draws upon personal essay House discursive psychology to explore the essay Institute of Management, ways in technology College which children talk about their lives and the process of 'becoming' an adult. Discursive psychology primarily focuses on writing Auston of Management discourse of constructs, 'a discourse refers to a set of is coursework one word St. Clair, meanings, metaphors, representations, images, stories and statements and so on that in essay writing Institute some way produce a particular version of events.' (Burr 1995:48), in particular the freelance jobs Saint John The Baptist Diocesan, type of personal writing, discourse, and how to write an argument essay Xi’an, since it is usually the case that the children have been brought up in a predominantly feminine environment, a relational discourse might be expected (O'Connor et al., 2004).
This notion of female influenced care is also evident in other studies (Phoenix, 1997). Discourses allow us to identify and to structure the young persons own, individual experiences, and each one will be an alternative construction of childhood, of the self and personal Auston Institute, the other events in article Diocesan School their lives through language, which is writing Auston of Management fundamental to the social constructionist view (Burr, 1995). Coursework Assessment Kensington. There is personal writing Auston of Management also a prevalent view where by it is cited that, ' The discourses which govern young people's transitions to adulthood define not only the amount of independence which young people have but the basis upon which rights and responsibilities are extended to them.' (Brannen and O'Brien, 1996, p229). It has also been argued that in the production of a young persons' own narrative self, they have to learn to negotiate the ambiguity of the process of individualisation, where the write my coursework, category of youth is being merged into adulthood, in order to Auston of Management position themselves correctly within adult and peer cultures, (Valentine 2000). The narratives of young people have located them, and defined them in opposition to adults; this position sets a clear division in the narrative segregation of children from adults which reinforce the social and spatial compartmentalisations of childhood as being a separate category from adulthood (Valentine 2000).
The Biologically Determined View. Traditionally psychology conceptualised a definite 'stage theory' which was proposed by essay Queen's College, Freud which looked at personal writing Auston Institute of Management, the various stages leading up to adolescence, and it was expanded on by Erikson (1968) who mentions three additional stages which lead to and constitute adulthood. These stages are, Oral-Sensory, which is birth to approximately 12-18 months. Muscular-Anal, from 18 months to 3 years, Latency from 6-12 years, Adolescence from coursework Kensington Park School 12-18 years, Young adulthood from Auston Institute of Management 19-40 years, Middle adulthood from 40-65 years and, Maturity, which is from 65-death. However by adopting this psychological theorising and stages of development it narrows the focus on the complex nature of is coursework College, relationships (France, 2000). Erickson (1968) also cites that an important part of identity formation in adolescence is acquiring a stable and mature value system; this is done through the exploration of their parents' ideas and values, (Knafo Schwartz 2004). Based on these ideas Marcia (1966) developed two further models of identity, foreclosure, which is the commitment of value systems and personal Auston Institute, identity without direct exposure to them, and one word St. Clair College, moratorium, the status of the personal Auston Institute of Management, individuals who have not made a commitment to an identity or value but are in the process of exploring the alternatives (Knafo Schwartz 2004). Essay Writing. Childhood is personal essay writing Institute of Management often defined on biological grounds and is based around the physical changes which occur, such as puberty, however even when we narrow it down to just biological age, significant variations over time and space can be detracted, (Young 02/12/04).
As such it is my coursework for me The Windsor School a pre requisite that we study childhood as a social construction rather than a biological category, Childhood cannot be studied in isolation from society as a whole, (Cunningham, 1995). Research Aims. The research aims are to: * Explore how young people reflect on their experience of childhood. * The discourses the young people draw upon in their construction of the society they live in. * How they construct and interpret 'childhood' in their discourse, particularly in relation to themselves as an individual. Aries, P. 1962. Centuries of childhood : A social history of family life. New York: Vintage Books. Bennett.
M., (2004) 'Children and Social Identity'. The Psychologist. Vol 17, No 9. p512-514 Bennett, M., Yuill, N., Banerjee, R., Thomson, S. (1998) Children's understanding of extended identity. Developmental Psychology, 34, 322-331. Berger, P.I Luckmann, T. (1967). The social construction of reality. Institute. New York: Anchor Books, Doubleday and Company. Brannen, J. and O'Brien, M. Essay Queen's College. (1996) Children in families: Research and policy.
Hampshire: Falmer press. Writing Of Management. Burr, V. Technology Writing College. (1995). An Introduction to Social Construction. London: Routeledge. Children act 1989: http://www.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts1989/Ukpga_19890041_en_1.htm Cooley, C. H. (1902) Human Nature and the Social Order.
New York: Scribner's Press. Corsaro, William A. Personal Essay Institute Of Management. (1997): The Sociology of how to Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Childhood. Personal Essay Writing Institute Of Management. California, London New Delhi: Pine Forge Press Cunningham, 1995: Childhood. Accessed 11/10/04 http://www.rouncefield.homestead.com/files/as_soc_family_26.htm Erikson, E. Coursework Assessment Park. (1902-1994): http://azaz.essortment.com/psychosocialdev_rijk.htm. Feuchtwang, M., Ramsay, S., (1999) The construction of childhood. London: University of London. Accessed 02/12/04 http://www.users.globalnet.co.uk/ opusuk/chldhood.htm France, A. (2000) 'Towards a sociological understanding of youth and their risk taking', Journal of Youth Studies, 3(3): 317-331. Frazer, S., Lewis, V., Ding, S., Kellet, M., and Robinson, C. (2004).
Doing Research with Children and Young People. London: Sage Gergen, m., Gergen, K. (2003) Social Construction, A Reader. London: Sage Publications. Gillick competence 1986: http://www.hrcr.org/safrica/childrens_rights/Gillick_WestNorfolk.htm Hallet, C Prout, A. (2003). Hearing the essay Institute, Voices of Children.
Social Policy for a New Century. Freelance Article Writing Online John The Baptist Diocesan. The Future of Childhood Series. London: RoutledgeFalmer. P11-25, 177-191. Harding, L.F. Recent developments in children's rights: liberation for whom?', Child and Family Social Work Journal 1996, 1 (3): 141-150 Hays, S. (1996). Essay Writing Auston Institute. The cultural contradictions of freelance writing online John, motherhood.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Hendrick, H. Personal Auston Institute. (1990). Images of Youth: Age, Class, and the Male Youth Problem, 1880-1920, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Hewstone, M., Wolfgang, S., Stephenson, G.M., Eds (1996). Introduction to Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell. P308 James, A. and Prout, A. For Me School. (1997) Constructing and personal essay writing Institute, Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in coursework Kensington Park the sociological Study of Childhood. Auston Of Management. London, Falmer Press. P243 Knafo, A., Schwartz, S. H. (2004) 'Identity Formation and Parent-Child Value Congruence in Adolescence'.
British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 439-458 Lambert, O. (1996). Coursework Assessment Park. The conception of childhood: An Historical Psychological Analysis. Simon Frazer University. Accessed 02/12/04 http://www.sfu.ca/ wwwpsyb/issues/1996/spring/lambert.htm Langdridge, D. Personal Essay Writing Institute. (2004) Introduction to Research Methods and Data Analysis in Psychology. Harlow, England: Pearson Prentice Hall. p252, p286 Lewis, Y. (2003) 'The self as a moral concept'.
British Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 42, Number 2, pp. 225-237. Is Coursework One Word College. Accessed 26/06/4. http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=U0PQL2M67L06UVXYLXLL. Lloyd-Smith, M. and Tarr, J. (2000) Researching Children's' Perspectives: A sociological dimension. Essay Auston Institute. Buckingham: Open University Press. Marcia, J.E. (1980).
Identity in essay writing Queen's College adolescence. In J. Adelson (ed) Handbook of adolescent psychology. New York: Wiley. Mead, G.H. (1934). Auston Institute. Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Muller, P. (1973). Childhood's changing status over the centuries. In Child development: Selected readings, L.M. Essay Writing. Brockman, J.H. Whiteley, J.P.
Zubak (Eds.), 2- 10. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. Narvanen, A-L, Nasman, E. (2004). Childhood as generation or life phase? Young, Nordic Journal of personal writing Auston, Youth Research.
Vol 12(1):71-91 National Children's Bureau. Guidelines for Research. http://www.ncb.org.uk/ourwork/research_guidelines.pdf . Accessed 01/11/04 O'Conner, P., Haynes, A., and Kane, C. (2004) 'Relational Discourses: Social Ties with family and friends'. Childhood: A global journal of research. Assessment Kensington Park School. Vol. 11, No3, 361-382. Phoenix, A. (1997) 'Youth and Gender; New Issues, New Agenda'; at: www.alli.fi/nyri/young/1997-3/artikkelPhoenix3-97.htm Accessed 25/06/04 Potter, J. Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and writing Auston Institute, Behaviour.
London: Sage. Personal Essay College. Prout, A. (2003) Hearing the Voices of Children: Social Policy for a New Century, London: Falmer Press. (Edited with Christine Hallett). United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989: http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm Valentine, G. (2000). Exploring children and essay writing Auston Institute, young people's narratives of identity. Geoforum 31, 257-267. Writing Personal Essay House College. Accessed 26/06/04 www.elsevier.com/locate/geoforum Willig, C., (2001). Personal Writing Auston Institute. Introducing Qualitative Research in Psychology. Adventures in essay College theory and method. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Woodhead, M., Faulkner, D. and Littleton, K. (Eds) Making sense of social development. London: Routledge, The Open University. Young, 1995: Child welfare across borders a social justice framework accessed 02/12/04 http://www.sws.soton.ac.uk/cwab/Session3/ICWs32.htm. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Pyschology essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in personal essay writing Auston Institute of Management our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Pyschology work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Pyschology essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies.
This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay on Self Reflections On Childhood | Psychology . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/psychology/self-reflections-on-childhood.php [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on essay Jiaotong-Liverpool University the link below to request removal: Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and personal writing Auston, coursework writing service.
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10 Tips on personal Institute Writing a Real Estate Resume. Executive recruiters, professional resume writers, and hiring managers say they've seen more poorly written resumes cross their desks recently than ever before. Technology Essay College? So before you waste time, money and postage and, most importantly, squander employment opportunities and tarnish your reputation in your industry - with a deficient resume, here are 10 tips for writing Auston Institute, writing an effective resume: Tip # 1: Cite your accomplishments, not merely job descriptions. Hiring managers are seeking candidates who can help them solve a problem or a need within their company. You can't be viewed as a possible solution to their problems without stating how you solved similar problems for other companies. Focus on what you did in the job, not just on article jobs online Saint The Baptist Diocesan what your job was. There is a subtle, but important difference. Include a one or two-line job description, followed by your accomplishments. Then, for each point, ask yourself this question: What was the benefit of your having done what you did?
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essay gun control Gun control is a hot button issue, especially in the wake of so many recent, tragic mass shootings. Writing Auston Institute Of Management? It is also a polarizing issue, which means that it tends to divide people. When you’re writing an argumentative essay, it generally doesn’t matter what side of an coursework Kensington School issue you take. What matters is that you take a side and support whichever position you choose. In the personal essay Auston, case of the gun control issue, you could plausibly—and defensibly—take either side: strict regulation up to and including an outright ban on firearms or complete legalization of individual gun ownership. Either way, you’re going to personal Brooke House need strong evidence. With this in mind, I’ve sourced 12 gun control articles from online publications that illustrate both sides of the debate, plus two articles that can help you understand the background of the Institute of Management, issue. For each article, I’ve included the author’s basic point and why the article is a worthwhile resource, as well as citations for APA and coursework assessment School, MLA 7th and MLA 8th editions. No matter what side you argue, this post will point you to some credible sources for your argumentative gun control essay.
6 Supporting Gun Control Articles. Pro-gun control article #1: Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the Second Amendment? This article discusses what is essay writing Institute of Management perhaps the greatest source of contention in the entire debate: the Second Amendment’s wording. The author quotes former Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, who advocates changing the Second Amendment’s confusing language to clarify that it only how to write essay, applies to personal writing Auston those serving in a militia. Formerly called BusinessWeek until 2010, Bloomberg Businessweek has been around since 1929 and has earned numerous industry publication awards. Barrett, P. M. (2014, February 10). Gun control and writing essay House College, the Constitution: Should we amend the Second Amendment? Bloomberg Businessweek.
Retrieved from http://www . bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-20/gun-control-and-the-constitution-should-we-amend-the-second-amendment. Barrett, Paul M. “Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the personal writing Auston, Second Amendment?” Bloomberg Businessweek . Bloomberg, 20 Feb. For Me School? 2014. Web. 10 July 2016. Barrett, Paul M. Personal Writing Auston? “Gun Control and the Constitution: Should We Amend the Second Amendment?” Bloomberg Businessweek , 20 Feb. 2014, www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-02-20/gun-control-and-the-constitution-should-we-amend-the-second-amendment.
Accessed 10 July 2016. A quick note about citations. I’ve included both MLA 7th edition and is coursework or two, MLA 8th edition, as well as APA, citations for each article that you can use if you decide to reference the personal essay Institute, source in essay writing, your gun control essay. Because the personal essay writing, MLA 8th edition went into effect in early 2016, not all professors/schools will require the is coursework one word or two, use of the new format. Check with your professor to see which edition he or she prefers. The 8th edition of personal writing MLA also suggests that you include the URL in each entry. Including the assessment Kensington, date you accessed an online source is now optional. I’ve included both pieces of information in personal writing Institute of Management, my examples. (Again, check with your professor to see what he or she prefers.) Pro-gun control article #2: It’s Time to Ban Guns.
Yes, All of Them. Bovy tackles the gun issue by arguing that the debate should not be about assessment Park School, closing loopholes in gun control. She doesn’t argue that specific types of personal writing Auston Institute guns should be banned, but argues that all guns should be banned. This article is published by New Republic, which “…was founded in 1914 as a journal of opinion which seeks to meet the challenge of a new time” (NewRepublic.com). “Today, the New Republic is the voice of creative thinkers, united by a collective desire to personal essay challenge the status quo” (NewRepublic.com). Bovey, P. Essay Writing Institute Of Management? M. (2015, December 10). It’s time to ban guns. Yes, all of them. New Republic. Retrieved from coursework School http://www.newrepublic.com/article/125498/its-time-ban-guns-yes-them.
Bovey, Phoebe, M. “It’s Time to Ban Guns. Yes, All of Them.” New Republic. New Republic, 10 Dec. Personal Auston Of Management? 2015. Web. 10 July 2016. Bovey, Phoebe, M. “It’s Time to my coursework The Windsor Ban Guns.
Yes, All of Them.” New Republic , 10 Dec. 2015, newrepublic.com/article/125498/its-time-ban-guns-yes-them. Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #3: Battleground America. This well-researched article was written in the aftermath of the Auston, Trayvon Martin shooting. It covers three main areas: An in-depth discussion of the freelance article The Baptist Diocesan High School, meaning of existing gun laws and the Second Amendment.
The difference between now and Auston of Management, the time in which the Amendment was drafted. How the drastically increased killing power of modern firearms makes any reference to the laws crafted two centuries ago obsolete. LePore is my coursework for me a frequent contributor to The New Yorker, as well as many other national news magazines. LePore, J. (2012, April 23). Battleground America. The New Yorker. Retrieved from personal essay writing of Management http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/23/battleground-america.
LePore, Jill. “Battleground America.” The New Yorker . The New Yorker, 23 Apr. 2012. Coursework Assessment Kensington Park School? Web. 10 July 2016. LePore, Jill. Writing Auston? “Battleground America.” The New Yorker , 23 Apr. 2012, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/04/23/battleground-america. Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #4: Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control. Hamblin discusses one of the most problematic aspects of the gun control debate: the fact that it is write The Windsor so politicized. Here, the author explains his opinion by personal essay writing of Management, framing it in his own experiences.
He states that he lost his job when he published a column arguing that it’s possible to regulate guns without infringing on individuals’ rights. Hamblin is a frequent contributor and senior editor at The Atlantic . Hamblin, J. Writing Personal Brooke College? (2014, June 29). Why we can’t talk about gun control. The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive /2014/06/how-to-interpret-the-second-amendment/373664. Hamblin, James. Essay Writing? “Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control.” The Atlantic . The Atlantic Monthly Group , 29 June 2014. Web. 10 July 2016. Hamblin, James. Technology? “Why We Can’t Talk About Gun Control.” The Atlantic , The Atlantic Monthly Group , 29 June 2014, www.theatlantic.com/politics /archive/2014/06/how-to-interpret-the-second-amendment/373664. Accessed 10 July 2016.
Pro-gun control article #5: California’s proposed gun laws won’t change our culture of violence, but they will make us safer. This editorial by the the LA Times Editorial Board explains that, even though California has some of the toughest gun laws in the country, there are still many loopholes. The editorial board argues that stricter regulations for purchasing guns and ammunition need to be in place to stop gun violence. The Los Angeles Times is a Pulitzer Prize-winning newspaper that has been in publication for Institute of Management more than 134 years. Times Editorial Board. (2016, April 22).
California’s proposed gun laws won’t change our culture of online Diocesan violence, but they will make us safer. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/opinion/editorials/la-ed-adv-california-guns-20160422-story. Times Editorial Board. Essay Writing Institute Of Management? “California’s Proposed Gun Laws Won’t Change Our Culture of Violence, but They Will Make Us Safer.” LATimes.com . Assessment Kensington? Los Angeles Times Media Group, 22 Apr. 2016. Essay Writing Auston Institute Of Management? Web. 10 July 2016. Times Editorial Board. “California’s Proposed Gun Laws Won’t Change Our Culture of Violence, but They Will Make Us Safer.” Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles Times Media Group, 22 Apr. 2016, www.latimes.com/opinion/ editorials/la-ed-adv-california-guns-20160422-story.
Accessed 10 July 2016. Pro-gun control article #6: 4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing. Though you might not automatically think hard-hitting news when you think of Rolling Stone magazine, the technology writing Queen's, author of personal essay this brief article succinctly sums up four common pro-gun arguments and explains why she doesn’t feel they’re effective. Rolling Stone covers a variety of cultural, music, social, and political news and writing jobs Saint The Baptist Diocesan, is a well-established magazine. Marcotte, A. Personal Auston Institute? (2015, October 1). 4 pro-gun arguments we’re sick of hearing.
Rolling Stone . Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/ politics/news/4-pro-gun-arguments-were-sick-of-hearing-20151001. Marcotte, Amanda. Is Coursework Or Two College? “4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of essay writing Auston Hearing.” Rolling Stone . Rolling Stone, 1 Oct. 2015. Web. 10 July 2016. Marcotte, Amanda. “4 Pro-Gun Arguments We’re Sick of Hearing.” Rolling Stone, 1 Oct.
2015, www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/4-pro-gun-arguments-were-sick-of-hearing-20151001. Accessed 10 July 2016. Now that we’ve examined articles in favor of gun control, let’s take a look at a few articles that are against gun control. Anti-gun control article #1: 5 arguments against gun control — and why they are all wrong. Published in the LA Times , this op-ed piece is written by Evan DeFilippis and Devin Hughes, who are the founders of the gun violence prevention site Armed With Reason. The authors argue that gun control laws don’t deter criminals and technology, cannot prevent mass shootings. DeFillipis, E., Hughes, D. (2016). Personal Auston Institute Of Management? 5 arguments against how to write essay Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, gun control—and why they are all wrong. Los Angeles Times. Personal Essay Writing Institute Of Management? Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/ opinion/op-ed/la-oe-defilippis-hughes-gun-myths-debunked-20160708-snap-story. DeFillipis, Evan and Devin Hughes “5 Arguments Against Gun Control—and Why They are All Wrong.” LATimes.com . Los Angeles Times, 8 July 2016.
Web. Essay Writing College? 10 July 2016. DeFillipis, Evan and Devin Hughes “5 Arguments Against Gun Control—and Why They are All Wrong.” Los Angeles Times , 8 July 2016, www.latimes.com/ opinion/op-ed/la-oe-defilippis-hughes-gun-myths-debunked-20160708-snap-story. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #2: Gun control isn’t the writing Auston of Management, answer. Wilson, an how to an argument essay Xi’an University author of personal essay Institute of Management several books about crime and a teaching fellow at Pepperdine University, asks an interesting question: how could or would we ever get rid of the freelance jobs online Diocesan School, hundreds of millions of guns that already exist in the United States? He takes the stance that banning firearms is pointless, that “the genie is out of the bottle.” He discounts the debate—driven by the Virginia Tech shootings that occurred just before he wrote the article—as being driven by election politics and, therefore, insincere. Though this source is a bit older, it still raises a valid question. Wilson, J. Q. (2007, April 20). Gun control isn’t the answer. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/la-oe-wilson20apr20-story.html. Wilson, James Q. “Gun Control Isn’t the Answer.” LATimes.com . Los Angeles Times, 20 Apr. Auston Institute Of Management? 2007. Web. 10 July 2016. Wilson, James Q. “Gun Control Isn’t the Answer.” Los Angeles Times, 20 Apr. My Coursework For Me School? 2007, www.latimes.com/la-oe-wilson20apr20-story.html. Personal Auston? Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #3: Why Gun Owners are Right to Fight Against Gun Control. Hardy argues that sweeping gun control legislation proposed by my coursework The Windsor, the anti-gun lobby leaves no room for writing Auston of Management compromise.
He then does a U-turn and complains about the slippery-slope nature of bans on one kind of weapon, such as assault weapons or sniper rifles, leading slowly but surely to writing total prohibition. Hardy fears that the gun control lobby is on a crusade to wipe out individual gun ownership altogether. Hardy is an Arizona attorney and a Second Amendment scholar and writer. Hardy, D. T. Personal Writing Auston? (2013, July 18). Why gun owners are right to how to an argument Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University fight against gun control. Reason.com. Retrieved from http://www.reason.com/archives/ 2013/07/18/why-second-amendment-supporters-are-righ. Hardy, David T. “Why Gun Owners are Right to Fight Against Gun Control.” Reason.com . Reason Foundation, 18 July 2013. Web. 10 July 2016.
Hardy, David T. “Why Gun Owners are Right to writing Institute of Management Fight Against Gun Control.” Reason.com, Reason Foundation, 18 July 2013, reason.com/ archives/2013/07/18/why-second-amendment-supporters-are-righ. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #4: ‘American Sniper’ widow: Gun control won’t protect us. This opinion piece discusses one woman’s experience with gun violence and writing personal Brooke House, why she believes gun control is not the answer. Taya Kyle, the Institute, writer of this article, is also the author of American Wife: A Memoir of Love, War, Faith, and coursework assessment Kensington, Renewal . The movie American Sniper was based on her late husband, Chris Kyle.
Kyle, T. (2013, July 18). ‘American Sniper’ widow: Gun control won’t protect us. CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/01/07/opinions/taya-kyle-gun-control. Kyle, Taya. “‘American Sniper’ Widow: Gun Control Won’t Protect Us.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 18 July 2013. Web. 10 July 2016.
Kyle, Taya. “‘American Sniper’ Widow: Gun Control Won’t Protect Us.” CNN , 18 July 2013, www.cnn.com/2016/01/07/opinions/taya-kyle-gun-control. Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #5: A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control. This article includes an interview with James Jacobs, director of the Center for Research in Crime and Justice at writing Institute New York University School of Law. He is also a professor of constitutional law and my coursework for me The Windsor, the author of Can Gun Control Work? In this article, Jacobs examines misunderstandings about gun control and examines the effectiveness of various gun control strategies. Davidson, J. Personal Essay Writing? (2015, December 1). A criminologist’s case against is coursework or two St. Clair College, gun control.
Time. Retrieved from http://www.time.com/4100408/a-criminologists-case-against-gun-control. Davidson, Jacob. “‘A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control.” Time.com. Time Inc., 1 Dec. 2015.
Web. 10 July 2016. Davidson, Jacob. “‘A Criminologist’s Case Against Gun Control.” Time , 1 Dec. 2015, time.com/4100408/a-criminologists-case-against-gun-control. Personal Writing Institute? Accessed 10 July 2016. Anti-gun control article #6: How Gun Control Kills. The author gives examples of incidents of essay Brooke College gun violence that were stopped by personal writing Auston of Management, people carrying guns, arguing that had such people not been on the scene, the results would have been worse.
Hunter is an aide to conservative senator Rand Paul. Hunter, J. (2012, December 27). Writing? How gun control kills. The American Conservative. Retrieved from personal essay Auston http://www.theamericanconservative.com/ articles/how-gun-control-kills. Hunter, Jack. “How Gun Control Kills.” The American Conservative . Burr Media Group, 27 Dec. 2012. Web. My Coursework For Me The Windsor? 10 July 2016. Hunter, Jack. “How Gun Control Kills.” The American Conservative, Burr Media Group, 27 Dec. 2012, www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/how-gun-control-kills.
Accessed 10 July 2016. 2 Resources About the Gun Control Debate. If you’re looking for articles with more background on writing Auston, the subject, check out these two resources that provide an overview of gun control and a variety of discussions about the topic. In 2015–2016, the well-respected news source CNN aired a series of programming titled Guns in America . This resource contains both articles and videos about a wide array of gun-related topics, including town-hall meetings, an my coursework for me interview with President Obama, gun violence statistics, interviews with the essay of Management, NRA, a discussion of the gun industry, and segments about guns and police. The articles and videos are too numerous to cite in this post, but I’ve included one sample to help illustrate how you might cite these resources. Simon, M., Sanchez, R. (2015, December 4). Writing Saint John The Baptist? U.S. gun violence: The story in charts and graphs. CNN. Essay Writing Auston Of Management? Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2015/12/ 04/us/gun-violence-graphics/index.html.
Simon, Mallory and Ray Sanchez. “U.S. Gun Violence: The Story in Charts and Graphs.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 4 Dec. Personal Essay Brooke College? 2015. Personal Writing Auston? Web. 10 July 2016. Simon, Mallory and Ray Sanchez. “U.S. Gun Violence: The Story in Charts and Graphs.” CNN , 4 Dec. 2015, cnn.com/2015/12/04/us/gun-violence-graphics/index.html.
Accessed 10 July 2016. This article, published by the The New York Times , provides broad definitions of gun control, includes arguments both for and against gun control, and even speculates as to why it’s so difficult to solve the debate. Perez-Pena, R. (2015, October 7). Gun control explained. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/ 07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0. Perez-Pena, Richard. “Gun Control Explained.” NYTimes.com . The New York Times Company, 7 Oct.
2015. Web. An Argument Essay Xi’an University? 10 July 2016. Perez-Pena, Richard. “Gun Control Explained.” The New York Times , 7 Oct. 2015, nytimes.com/interactive/2015/10/07/us/gun-control-explained.html?_r=0. Accessed 10 July 2016. You can cite these or any of personal essay Institute of Management thousands of other gun control articles to buttress your argument. (Read 5 Best Resources to Help With Writing a Research Paper if you need assistance researching more scholarly sources.) Whichever side of the issue you take, make sure to mention the source, cite it properly (in-text and in your Works Cited or References list), and coursework assessment Kensington School, format direct quotations, summaries, and paraphrases per MLA 7th edition, MLA 8th edition, or APA guidelines.
If you copy the APA or MLA citations I created above, be sure to update the accessed date (10 July 2016) to the date that you accessed the article. Keep in mind that there will be very, very few sources (including the ones I used above) that are totally objective. Most writers—and most websites—will be catering to an audience. For a fuller list of personal essay issues on both sides of the debate, check out these Top Pro Con Arguments on gun control. Your job is to filter out the write for me School, bias and see what value a given person’s argument really has.
Some of the most rabid commentators on both sides of the issue actually make good points—you just have to get past all the screaming. Once you’re ready to essay writing of Management start writing, check out these sample essays on gun control for some ideas on is coursework one word or two, how to put your paper together. If you need help with writing your essay, read How to personal Auston Institute Write a Research Paper: a Step-by-Step Guide. Writing? Need help with overall formatting according to the style guide you’re using? Give these resources a try: When you’re finished drafting your argument, don’t forget to have an editor proofread your essay for personal writing Auston Institute you. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades!
Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. You’re welcome! I’m glad you found this to technology essay writing Queen's be helpful. 1) “This is a good place to essay writing Institute of Management start because the Second Amendment is pretty. much the cornerstone of the whole debate, and the modification that.
Stevens suggests highlights the fact that the Second Amendment refers to. an armed citizen militia, not individual gun ownership.” Actually, the fact that Stevens wants to change the 2nd points to write for me The Windsor School the fact that the 2nd DOES NOT refer to an armed militia, because his change is nonsense. Personal Essay Writing Institute? The organized militia is a body of the government and thus, needs no right to be armed. 2) If you use this one, you are arguing for essay College prior restraint against personal Institute of Management, an inalienable right. Is Coursework Or Two? 110 million gun owners. 8855 “gun murders.” 99.9996% of all gun owners…. safe. 3) David Hardy is absolutely right.
He’s the only one that backs up his arguments with evidence. 4) Yep. Personal Essay Auston Institute? Gun control…or the possibility of gun control is writing Queen's costing some states long held jobs. And some state politicians their jobs, too. 5) Interesting premise…but just an opinion. Here’s a sixth: Investigate the racist roots of gun control. If you want to discuss the 2nd amendment, stay away from emotional arguments. The 2nd amendment protects a pre-existing, individual, inalienable right to keep and bear arms. It does not derived from the Constitution.
It is protected by it. That is the base from which you should discuss all gun control. Clearly some one PRO gun control based on their wording. The second amendment, the right to bear arms, is currently under heavy fire. Many people believe that firearms are directly linked to crime, and essay Auston Institute, are just too dangerous in general. Kensington? These people believe that stricter gun laws need to be in place, or the second amendment is personal Auston Institute outdated and no longer relative or necessary. This is untrue. The second amendment and the right to bear arms must remain intact. The second amendment is long standing, and crucial to technology College the American citizens, for personal essay writing Institute purposes including worst case scenarios and School, life or death situations, and not to mention that through multiple studies, statistics and research have shown and discovered that stricter gun laws, or prohibition altogether, would only personal Auston Institute, worsen the situation. Firearms actually prevent more crimes than they are involved in committing.
This right gives the writing personal essay Brooke House, American citizens the ability to defend and fight for Institute of Management themselves, their neighbors, and their family, in the face of any evil, foreign or local. One must also remember that stricter gun laws will not necessarily stop or hinder crime. Writing Personal Brooke House College? Criminals do, after all, break the law on a regular basis. Writing Auston Institute Of Management? Most firearms used in criminal activities are illegally obtained, whether stolen or bought through an illegal source. Queen's? Overall, the second amendment, the personal Institute, right to keep and bear arms, is still in place for a very good reason. This right allows the people to defend themselves at any given time, and therefor live without certain fear. Looks like you have a good start to coursework School your own pro-gun essay here. (Just be sure to essay Auston Institute back up your statements with credible sources and is coursework St. Clair, research.) This is just skippy except the second amendment gives me the right to be armed to protect me from an oppressive government.
They colonists had just fought a war to free themselves from an oppressive government, so the second amendment is not there to give me the right to hunt or shoot burglars. Personal Essay Writing Auston? If the government allows the police or the military to become excessive, calling them to protect you from them doesn’t make much sense does it? And yes, there were some pretty awesome weapons (multi-shot repeaters) in the 1700’s that the founders were fully aware of. Just some questions from an outsider. Why are Americans afraid of article online Saint The Baptist Diocesan School their neighbor and so have to essay Auston of Management carry a weapon?
Why do Americans think that the Police are so incompetent that they have to arm themselves to do their job. How To Write An Argument Xi’an University? Why are citizens allowed to personal writing Auston of Management open carry their guns to the mall and local store but politicians will not allow them to carry a weapon to the Conservative Party National Convention? Why do Americans give criminals the right to carry weapons? All of these questions would make great material for a paper on the topic. wow the potato is strong with you, the most violent states in the country are california, new york illinois, and DC, all have some of the jobs Saint The Baptist Diocesan School, most restrictive laws in the country, and are suprisingly full of “tolerant liberals” Sounds like you could definitely write an essay defending this position, Bree — great research. As an Englishman I have been – on and off – following this for years. Up till fairly recently, under the Truck Acts( passed in personal writing Institute, the 19th century) stipulated that all persons in gainful employment had to be paid in “current currency of the realm”.
In other words, they had to coursework assessment Kensington Park School be paid in cash. Thus the employer would send the pay clerk to the bank, after having worked out how many items of personal each piece of currency was needed to render the exact amount down to the last smallest value coin. He would go to the same bank, the same local branch, and technology essay writing, the same time. Pre-WW2 this was for the most part safe. The reason was quite simple; in the 1930s the moral standards set out in the Christian faith were still strongly respected, even by many who were either non-churchgoers or were not exactly noted for their fervency of belief. However, the influence of the Sunday School movement was very strong. WW2 disrupted this, a factor commented on unfavourably in Vol.1 of Sir John Hamerton’s work, The Second Great War.
All the evacuations had the effect of depriving many of the “means of personal essay writing Institute of Management grace” that inculcated moral standards. The result was a progressive decline in such standards post-WW2. Then, first one, then another began to my coursework for me School notice the pay clerks’ routine. Result? An increasing round of wage-snatching of personal essay writing of Management progressively increasing violence. In the wake of these, some started up security firms who would guarantee safe delivery of the cash. Eventually some security firms’ personnel began carrying handguns. One incident in December, 1961 fairly threw the cat among the pigeons. A gang attacked a security van, not knowing that its personnel were armed, as well as having a guard dog. One of the one word or two St. Clair, guards opened fire, wounding one of the writing Auston of Management, gang, who fled away empty-handed, leaving a fearsome array of weapons. The reaction of the police was to demand the disarming of all bank guards; one senior police officer even bleated that was “better to lose ?100,000” than to risk the criminals carrying guns in response.
I suppose he had in mind that Parliament had not long before decided to limit the categories of capital murder to, among other, “murder committed in how to essay Xi’an University, the furtherance of theft”, but he may have also feared a more widespread rise in armed robberies. As it was, not far from where I am typing this out, and only 18 months later, 26 times the essay writing, amount he mentioned was stolen in what we still call the Great Train Robbery. Jumping from there to the Dunblane massacre and the subsequent Acts that banned all civilian ownership of handguns(1996, 1997), a number of features emerge. Is Coursework Or Two St. Clair? The murderer had already gotten into bad odour with the Scouts, and increasingly with others, and this led at least one junior police officer to suggest that his licences(for FOUR handguns!) be revoked. In the wake of personal essay writing of Management Lord Cullen’s report the cop’s superior resigned. However, the reaction of at is coursework St. Clair College least one, if not more, of London’s grubbier tabloids was to scream out louder for all civilian ownership of personal writing Auston Institute of Management handguns to write be banned, a sentiment led one Tory MP to say that he now knew what it was like to have been a Jew in Hitler’s Germany. For the Sun, read Der Sturmer; for the Sun’s then editor read Julius Streicher, who duly swung at Auston a rope’s end for the crimes he committed in WW2. As if that hasn’t been enough, it appears that the online School, proceedings of the Cullen Committee will remain under lock and key till 2096. There has been one recent development—albeit a small one. Two men attempted to essay Auston Institute break into a house; one of the owners had a shotgun, and he fired at them, killing one. When arraigned before a court on a charge of murder, the presiding judge directed the jury to acquit.
He cited a noted English jurist, Sir Edward Coke, who lived some 400 years ago, as saying that “an Englishman’s home is assessment his castle”. Yes, one of the personal essay writing Institute of Management, leaders of the gun control mob(not very large, but unduly influential) expressed “disappointment” at the ruling and verdict. Still, it is a chink of Kensington Park light. What happens in the future is yet to personal essay Auston Institute of Management be seen. Incidentally, during November 2000 I spent a fortnight on coursework assessment, holiday in Texas at the invitation of a woman friend.
Amazingly, I felt safer in downtown San Antonio than I would in many British cities. I put it down to three factors, viz. (I) they still have the death penalty for murder – we pensioned off the hangman in 1965; (ii) after training and personal essay writing Institute of Management, certification one can carry a concealed handgun – makes it dangerous for intending burglars or muggers; (iii) in Teas, and in large parts of the US, one enjoys the “means of grace” in technology writing Queen's, the form of Christian schooling and Christian broadcasting – here in the UK faith schools are allowed, but secular humanists bleat about “indoctrination” of children, while Christian broadcasting is severely restricted, with even one complainer being apparently enough to shut it down. Molon Labe. My question is how do you plan on finding and personal essay writing Auston, removing ever gun across the nation? Stop the black market where other cartel and write The Windsor, gangs will flood the street with weapons from personal essay writing Auston of Management other countries that produce them? Leprechauns riding unicorns patrolling the candy land streets of delusionalville? So the plan is to remove them from the writing Queen's, law abiding citizens (because they are the only ones that would turn them in without a fire fight). Personal Writing Auston Institute? Criminalize the ones that refuse to turn them in AND fight them with government agencies that have guns. So now with the law abiding citizen are disarmed, the ones that refuse to be disarmed are criminals and my coursework School, the gangs and criminals keep their firearms because well…they are criminals…yeap seems like a solid plan to me!
Let’s move forward with this and see how well it turns out. Hitler, Stalin, Pot and Moa would be proud!
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There are two areas in which even students with thorough science knowledge lose points. These areas are timing and testing strategy. Timing strategy means making decisions about how you use your time on the test - how many questions you'll do, which questions, what order, how much time is ok to spend on a question, when to move on and when to personal, keep working, whether to focus on details or take the time to see the big picture, how much time is ok to spend on organizing info, whether to go fast to online John High School, get to essay Auston, more or to St. Clair College, slow down to writing Institute, be more accurate. Most people have developed an intuitive strategy for how to work tests based on your past experience. And for most people the strategy you've developed is not the most effective one for essay College, the MCAT. Almost every student I've worked with has been able to get extra points by essay writing Auston, learning a better way to use your time on the MCAT. What about testing strategy? Most students report that there are many questions they get wrong even though they knew the science. What happened? Often they were not able to carefully organize the complex information presented in a problem.
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Is it that one answer is just more elegant than the other, more sophisticated, more intelligent according to the test writers? No. It's not that one answer is better. One of those two answers is dead wrong. It has a fatal flaw. The situation is in fact black and white. How To Write An Argument Jiaotong-Liverpool University. One answer is wrong and the other is indisputably correct. There is writing of Management a hidden agenda of the VR section, a specific criterion for what makes an answer correct and article Diocesan what makes a fatal flaw. To master this section, you need to first learn this hidden agenda and then you need to start learning the hundreds of patterns that the test uses to create fatal flaws.
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